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Empirical studies have the potential to both inform and transform cyber peace research. Empirical research can shed light on opaque phenomena, summarize and synthesize diverse stakeholder perspectives, and allow causal inferences about the impact of policymaking efforts. However, researchers embarking on empirical projects in the area of cyber peace generally, and cybersecurity specifically, face significant challenges – particularly related to data collection. In this chapter, we identify some of the key impediments to empirical cyber research and suggest how researchers and other interested stakeholders can overcome these barriers.
The international community is too often focused on responding to the latest cyber-attack instead of addressing the reality of pervasive and persistent cyber conflict. From ransomware against the city government of Baltimore to state-sponsored campaigns targeting electrical grids in Ukraine and the U.S., we seem to have relatively little bandwidth left over to ask what we can hope for in terms of 'peace' on the Internet, and how to get there. It's also important to identify the long-term implications for such pervasive cyber insecurity across the public and private sectors, and how they can be curtailed. This edited volume analyzes the history and evolution of cyber peace and reviews recent international efforts aimed at promoting it, providing recommendations for students, practitioners and policymakers seeking an understanding of the complexity of international law and international relations involved in cyber peace. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Many leading environmental and security concerns now facing the international community may be traced to the frontiers, that is, the areas historically outside of national jurisdiction including the deep seabed, outer space, Antarctica, the atmosphere, and some argue, cyberspace. From climate change and cyber attacks to the associated challenges of space weaponization and orbital debris mitigation, solutions to all of these issues have at their root some form of regulation over the frontiers, sometimes – though not always accurately – called the “global commons.” Governance is transitioning away from consensual United Nations–centered multilateral treaties to regional and bilateral accords. These burgeoning regime complexes are being influenced by the multipolar state of international relations, advancing technology, and resource scarcity. Environmental and security challenges are proliferating as a result of governance being in flux. This chapter distills recent research on these topics and makes an original contribution by comparing and contrasting some of the principal issues facing these frontiers of the international community, analyzing how and why existing governance structures are often failing to adequately meet global collective action problems, and proposing a new way forward incorporating lessons from successful regimes as well as the interdisciplinary scholarship on polycentric governance.
The Internet of Everything takes the notion of IoT a step further by including not only the physical infrastructure of smart devices, but also its impacts on people, business, and society. Our world is getting more connected, if not smarter, but to date governance regimes have struggled to keep pace with this dynamic rate of innovation. Yet it is an open question whether security and privacy protections can or will scale within this dynamic and complex global digital ecosystem, and whether law and policy can keep up with these developments? The natural question, then, is whether our approach to governing the Internet of Everything is, well, smart? This chapter explores what lessons the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) and Governing Knowledge Commons (GKC) Frameworks hold for promoting security, and privacy, in an Internet of Everything, with special treatment regarding the promise and peril of blockchain technology to build trust in such a massively distributed network. Particular attention is paid to governance gaps in this evolving ecosystem, and what state, federal, and international policies are needed to better address security and privacy failings.
This chapter tracks the evolution of the climate change regime, discussing both top-down multilateral agreements (such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) as well as bottom-up polycentric efforts with a particular focus on the period from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord to the 2015 Paris Agreement. It then compares and contrasts these findings with the history of Internet governance from its birth in the late 1970s to the last major meetings in 2017 that occurred prior to publication of this book. Finally, the potential of polycentric governance to mitigate the two global collective action problems of climate change and cyber attacks is assessed using a regime effectiveness study.