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A national prevalence study of early-onset dementia in Japan has provided data on their challenges and support needs, as documented by the individual and their family members. This study examined differences between 1) cases that the onset of early-onset dementia was detected by work colleagues, and 2) other cases.
After identifying medical or long-term care service offices used by people with early-onset dementia in 12 regions in Japan, a questionnaire was distributed to the individuals and their family members. The items surveyed were age at the time of the survey, gender, employment at the onset, age when the initial symptoms were detected, the person who detected the initial symptoms, and consideration received at the workplace. In this report, only those who were working at the onset were included in the analysis. Next, they were divided into two groups according to whether the person who detected the initial symptoms was a colleague or not, and a chi-square test was used to compare the two groups. This study was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committee of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine.
Of the 1035 questionnaires collected, 559 were were working at the time of onset of initial symptoms, and 149 (26.7%) of these cases were initially detected by a colleague. Comparison between groups revealed that the cases detected by colleagues 1) were recommended to see an occupational physician (P<0.001), 2) were referred to a specialist (P<0.001), 3) received consideration such as reassignment in the workplace (P<0.001), 4) received consideration regarding transportation (P=0.023), 5) had someone to talk to in the workplace (P<0.001), and 6) were significantly unlikely to receive no consideration at all (P=0.010).
Early-onset dementia was noticed by a colleague due to an increase mistake in the workplace but may have received reasonable accommodations that could have been considered by each workplace. The results of this study may help to promote dementia-friendly workplace strategies.
Background: Memory impairment has been proposed as the most common early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of this work were to evaluate the risk of progression from mild memory impairment/no dementia (MMI/ND) to clinically diagnosable AD in a community-based prospective cohort and to establish the risk factors for progression from MMI/ND to AD in the elderly.
Methods: Elderly subjects aged over 65 years were selected from the participants in the first Nakayama study. MMI/ND was defined as memory deficit on objective memory assessment, without dementia, impairment of general cognitive function, or disability in activities of daily living. A total of 104 MMI/ND subjects selected from 1242 community-dwellers were followed longitudinally for five years.
Results: During the five-year follow-up, 11 (10.6%) subjects were diagnosed with AD, five (4.8%) with vascular dementia (VaD), and six (5.8%) with dementia of other etiology. Logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus (DM) and a family history of dementia (within third-degree relatives) were positively associated with progression to AD, while no factor was significantly associated with progression to VaD or all types of dementia.
Conclusions: DM and a family history of dementia were significant risk factors for progression from MMI/ND to clinically diagnosable AD in the elderly in a Japanese community.
In an earlier study we showed that a powerful emotional experience (the Kobe earthquake) reinforced memory retention in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but we could not control factors other than the emotional impact of the earthquake.
To test our previous findings in a controlled experimental study.
Recall tests consisting of two short stories were administered to 34 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 10 normal subjects. The two stories were identical except for one passage in each story: one was emotionally charged (arousing story) and the other (neutral story) was not.
In both groups, the emotionally charged passage in the arousing story was remembered better than the counterpart in the neutral story. In addition, the extent of the memory improvement was similar in the subjects and in the controls.
The results provide further evidence that emotional arousal enhances declarative memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and give a clue to the management of people with dementia.
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