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Cognitive remediation (CR) can reduce the cognitive difficulties experienced by people with psychosis. Adapting CR to be delivered remotely provides new opportunities for extending its use. However, doing so requires further evaluation of its acceptability from service users’ views. We evaluate the acceptability of therapist-supported remote CR from the perspectives of service users using participatory service user-centred methods.
After receiving 12 weeks of therapist-supported remote CR, service users were interviewed by a service user researcher following a semi-structured 18-question interview guide. Transcripts were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis with themes and codes further validated by a Lived Experience Advisory Panel and member checking.
The study recruited 26 participants, almost all of whom reported high acceptability of remote CR, and some suggested improvements. Four themes emerged: (1) perceived treatment benefits, (2) remote versus in-person therapy, (3) the therapist’s role, and (4) how it could be better.
This study used comprehensive service user involvement methods. For some participants, technology use remained a challenge and addressing these difficulties detracted from the therapy experience. These outcomes align with existing research on remote therapy, suggesting that remote CR can expand choice and improve access to treatment for psychosis service users once barriers are addressed. Future use of remote CR should consider technology training and equipment provision to facilitate therapy for service users and therapists.
Valproate is widely used in psychiatry and neurology, including off-label use. Here we consider its potential benefits and risks, particularly for women of childbearing potential, and the evidence that clinical guidelines are adhered to. Finally, we consider the implications for clinical practice and research into its efficacy in off-label indications.
Triple chronotherapy (sleep deprivation for 36 h, followed by 4 days of advancing the time of sleep and daily morning bright-light therapy for 6 months) has demonstrated benefits for the rapid treatment of depressive symptoms in four small controlled trials of in-patients.
To test the feasibility of recruitment and delivery of triple chronotherapy for out-patients with depression (ISRCTN17706836; NCT03405493).
In a single-blind trial, 82 participants were randomised to triple chronotherapy or a control intervention. The primary outcome was the number of participants recruited per month and adherence to the protocol. Secondary outcomes included the 6-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-6) at 1 week. Timings of observer ratings were baseline and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 26 weeks after randomisation.
The triple chronotherapy group stayed awake for the planned 36 h and 89.9% adhered to the plan of phase advance of their sleep over the following 4 days. We achieved our recruitment target (60 participants completed the trial within 13 months). There were no reported adverse side-effects. We found a significant difference between the groups by intention-to-treat analysis for the HRSD-6 at weeks 1, 8 and 26. There was a large effect size of Cohen's d = 0.8 on HRSD-6 score at week 1, increasing to d = 1.30 at week 26. A response (≥50% reduction in symptoms) was achieved by 33.3% in the triple chronotherapy group and 16.2% in the control group. This stayed relatively steady until week 26 (35.9 v. 13.9%).
Triple chronotherapy produced a significant and rapid benefit after 1 week in out-patients with depression that was sustained at 26 weeks. Cost-effectiveness trials with a larger clinical sample are required.
Triple chronotherapy (defined as sleep deprivation for 36 hours, followed by 4 days of advancing the time of sleep, together with daily morning bright light therapy for 6 months) has demonstrated benefits for the rapid treatment of depressive symptoms in 4 small, controlled trials of in-patients. Our aims were to test the feasibility of recruitment and delivery of triple chronotherapy for out-patients with depression.
In a single blind trial, 82 participants were randomised to either triple chronotherapy or a control intervention. The primary outcome was Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 6 item (HAM-D6) at 1 week. Timings of observer ratings were baseline; 1 week; 2 weeks; 4 weeks; 8 weeks and 26 weeks after randomisation. Triple chronotherapy consisted of (a) Total sleep deprivation for 36 hours. On Day 1 patients were supported in a small group to stay awake at night with an occupational therapist, (b) Phase Advance of Sleep over 4 days. Phase Advance began after the first night of sleep deprivation, when they left the hospital at about 8am and were asked to go to bed earlier at about 5pm and rise at about 1am. Their sleep and wake up times were then shifted 2 hours later on each of the following three days until they attained their usual bedtime again at about 11pm.As a control for the triple chronotherapy, participants were given psychoeducation and written information on sleep hygiene. They were also given SomniLight amber light daily for 1 week in the morning.
Participants in the triple chronotherapy group were able to stay awake for the planned thirty-six hours and 89.9% adhered to the plan of phase advance of their sleep over the following 4 days. We achieved our recruitment target with 60 participants having completed the trial within 13 months. There were no reported adverse side effects. We explored outcomes and found a significant difference between the groups for the HAM-D6 at week 1, 8 and 26. Response (> 50% reduction in symptoms) was achieved by 52% in the triple chronotherapy group compared to 18% in the control group at week 1. This gradually increased to 70% achieving response in the triple chronotherapy group at week 26 compared to 22% in the control group.
Triple chronotherapy produced a significant and rapid benefit after 1 week in out-patients with depression that was sustained at 26 weeks. Further cost-effective trials with a larger clinical sample size are required.
Trends in detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 in two major London secondary mental healthcare providers were explored using patient-level data in a historical cohort study between 2007–2008 and 2016–2017. An increase in the number of detention episodes initiated per fiscal year was observed at both sites. The rise was accompanied by an increase in the number of active patients; the proportion of active patients detained per year remained relatively stable. Findings suggest that the rise in the number of detentions reflects the rise of the number of people receiving secondary mental healthcare.
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