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Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) effects 0.5–3.28% of children. NICE guidance recommends Activity Management, Graded Exercise Therapy or Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for fatigue (CBT-f). Approximately 15% of patients do not achieve full recovery within one year with current treatments. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an effective treatment in many chronic illnesses. There are no studies investigating ACT for paediatric CFS/ME. This feasability study aimed to assess if ACT is a feasible and acceptable alternative treatment when current treatment has not led to recovery.
This feasability cohort study aimed to enrol a minimum of 12 participants aged 11–18 yearswith CFS/ME attending the Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust Specialist Paediatric CFS/ME Service, who were still symptomatic after 12 months or 12 sessions of standard treatment and were offered six to 12 sessions of ACT. Retention and recruitment data were analysed. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires before, during and after treatment. A selection of participants and their parents were interviewed about their experience of the study. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.
19 participants (95% of those approached) were recruited. Only 4 participants of this hard-to-reach group did not complete treatment.
In almost all sessions participants reported that they felt ‘totally’ listened to in post session questionnaires (31/33 sessions).
Preliminary interviews (n = 12) indicate acceptability of ACT, with all young people and their parents stating that they thought ACT should be offered to this population. Participants particularly commented that the absence of thought challenging (used in CBT-f) was a positive element of ACT. Participant's openness to try new approaches and altruistic desire to be in a study was noted.
Recruitment data indicate that it is feasible to recruit and retain 11–18-year-olds with CFS/ME to a study offering ACT. Interviews with participants and parents were broadly positive suggesting ACT is an acceptable treatment in this population.
Results indicated that it is both feasible and acceptable to offer ACT to 11–18-year-olds with CFS/ME using this protocol, supporting the prospect of an RCT in this area.
The Health Service Executive National Clinical Programme for Eating Disorders (NCPED) launched a Model of Care for Eating Disorder Services in Ireland in 2018. Currently, one adult and two child and adolescent eating disorder services are operational out of a total of sixteen recommended. The three objectives of this paper are to describe the early (1) referral pattern, (2) level of service activity and (3) the level of service user satisfaction.
Monthly submitted service activity data from each service to the NCPED between March 2018 and October 2020 were retrospectively analysed. One hundred and fifty-nine carers and service users completed an experience of service questionnaire (ESQ). A descriptive analysis of referral pattern, level of service activity and ESQ was performed. A thematic analysis was performed on three qualitative questions on the ESQ.
There was substantial referral numbers to eating disorder services by 18 months (n = 258). The main referral source was community mental health teams. The majority (n = 222, 86%) of referrals were offered an assessment. The most common age profile was 10–17 years of age (n = 120, 54.1%), and anorexia nervosa was the most common disorder (n = 96, 43.2%). ESQ results demonstrate that most service users were satisfied with their service, and the main themes were carer involvement, staff expertise, therapeutic alliance and service access.
This preliminary service activity and service user satisfaction data highlight several issues, including trends when setting up a regional eating disorder service, potential pitfalls of pragmatic data collection and the need for adequate information-technology infrastructure.
Psychiatric mother and baby units (MBUs) are recommended for severe perinatal mental illness, but effectiveness compared with other forms of acute care remains unknown.
We hypothesised that women admitted to MBUs would be less likely to be readmitted to acute care in the 12 months following discharge, compared with women admitted to non-MBU acute care (generic psychiatric wards or crisis resolution teams (CRTs)).
Quasi-experimental cohort study of women accessing acute psychiatric care up to 1 year postpartum in 42 healthcare organisations across England and Wales. Primary outcome was readmission within 12 months post-discharge. Propensity scores were used to account for systematic differences between MBU and non-MBU participants. Secondary outcomes included assessment of cost-effectiveness, experience of services, unmet needs, perceived bonding, observed mother–infant interaction quality and safeguarding outcome.
Of 279 women, 108 (39%) received MBU care, 62 (22%) generic ward care and 109 (39%) CRT care only. The MBU group (n = 105) had similar readmission rates to the non-MBU group (n = 158) (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86–1.04, P = 0.29; an absolute difference of −5%, 95% CI −14 to 4%). Service satisfaction was significantly higher among women accessing MBUs compared with non-MBUs; no significant differences were observed for any other secondary outcomes.
We found no significant differences in rates of readmission, but MBU advantage might have been masked by residual confounders; readmission will also depend on quality of care after discharge and type of illness. Future studies should attempt to identify the effective ingredients of specialist perinatal in-patient and community care to improve outcomes.
Trauma is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Trauma systems have been paramount in opposing this problem. Commonly, Level 1 Trauma Centers are staffed by in-house (IH) attending trauma surgeons available 24/7, whereas other institutions function on an on-call (OC) basis with defined response times. There is on-going debate about the value of an IH attending trauma surgeon compared to OC trauma surgeons regarding clinical outcome.
This study was performed at a tertiary care facility complying with all requirements to be a designated Level 1 Trauma Center as defined by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT). Inclusion occurred from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2013. Patients were assigned an identifier for IH trauma surgeon attendance versus OC attendance. The primary outcome variable studied was overall mortality in relation to IH or OC attending trauma surgeons. Additionally, time to operating theater, hospital length-of-stay (HLOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) admittance were investigated.
A total of 1,287 unique trauma cases in 1,285 patients were presented to the trauma team. Of all cases, 712 (55.3%) occurred between 1700h and 0800h. These 712 cases were treated by an IH attending in 66.3% (n = 472) and an OC attending in 33.7% (n = 240). In the group of patients treated by an IH attending trauma surgeon, the overall mortality rate was 5.5% (n = 26); in the group treated by an OC attending, the overall mortality rate was 4.6% (n = 11; P = .599). Cause of death was traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 57.6%. No significant difference was found in the time between initial presentation at the trauma room and arrival in the operating theater.
In terms of trauma-related mortality during non-office hours, no benefit was demonstrated through IH trauma surgeons compared to OC trauma surgeons.
Critical shortages of personal protective equipment, especially N95 respirators, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a source of concern. Novel methods of N95 filtering face-piece respirator decontamination that can be scaled-up for in-hospital use can help address this concern and keep healthcare workers (HCWs) safe.
A multidisciplinary pragmatic study was conducted to evaluate the use of an ultrasonic room high-level disinfection system (HLDS) that generates aerosolized peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide for decontamination of large numbers of N95 respirators. A cycle duration that consistently achieved disinfection of N95 respirators (defined as ≥6 log10 reductions in bacteriophage MS2 and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores inoculated onto respirators) was identified. The treated masks were assessed for changes to their hydrophobicity, material structure, strap elasticity, and filtration efficiency. PAA and hydrogen peroxide off-gassing from treated masks were also assessed.
The PAA room HLDS was effective for disinfection of bacteriophage MS2 and G. stearothermophilus spores on respirators in a 2,447 cubic-foot (69.6 cubic-meter) room with an aerosol deployment time of 16 minutes and a dwell time of 32 minutes. The total cycle time was 1 hour and 16 minutes. After 5 treatment cycles, no adverse effects were detected on filtration efficiency, structural integrity, or strap elasticity. There was no detectable off-gassing of PAA and hydrogen peroxide from the treated masks at 20 and 60 minutes after the disinfection cycle, respectively.
The PAA room disinfection system provides a rapidly scalable solution for in-hospital decontamination of large numbers of N95 respirators during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A primary barrier to translation of clinical research discoveries into care delivery and population health is the lack of sustainable infrastructure bringing researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and communities together to reduce silos in knowledge and action. As National Institutes of Healthʼs (NIH) mechanism to advance translational research, Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) awardees are uniquely positioned to bridge this gap. Delivering on this promise requires sustained collaboration and alignment between research institutions and public health and healthcare programs and services. We describe the collaboration of seven CTSA hubs with city, county, and state healthcare and public health organizations striving to realize this vision together. Partnership representatives convened monthly to identify key components, common and unique themes, and barriers in academic–public collaborations. All partnerships aligned the activities of the CTSA programs with the needs of the city/county/state partners, by sharing resources, responding to real-time policy questions and training needs, promoting best practices, and advancing community-engaged research, and dissemination and implementation science to narrow the knowledge-to-practice gap. Barriers included competing priorities, differing timelines, bureaucratic hurdles, and unstable funding. Academic–public health/health system partnerships represent a unique and underutilized model with potential to enhance community and population health.
Right heart function is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension and many CHD. We investigated whether treatment with the prostacyclin analogue treprostinil could prevent pressure overload-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and failure.
Male Wistar rats were randomised to severe pulmonary trunk banding with a 0.5-mm banding clip (n=41), moderate pulmonary trunk banding with a 0.6-mm banding clip (n=36), or sham procedure (n=10). The banded rats were randomised to 6 weeks of treatment with a moderate dose of treprostinil (300 ng/kg/minute), a high dose of treprostinil (900 ng/kg/minute), or vehicle.
Pulmonary trunk banding effectively induced hypertrophy, dilatation, and decreased right ventricular function. The severely banded animals presented with decompensated heart failure with extracardial manifestations. Treatment with treprostinil neither reduced right ventricular hypertrophy nor improved right ventricular function.
In the pulmonary trunk banding model of pressure overload-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and failure, moderate- and high-dose treatment with treprostinil did not improve right ventricular function neither in compensated nor in decompensated right heart failure.
This article reports on the test–retest reliability and sensitivity to change of a set of brief dimensional self-rating questionnaires for social anxiety disorder (SAD-D), specific phobia (SP-D), agoraphobia (AG-D), panic disorder (PD-D), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-D), as well as a general cross-cutting anxiety scale (Cross-D), which were developed to supplement categorical diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5).
The German versions of the dimensional anxiety scales were administered to 218 students followed up approximately 2 weeks later (Study 1) and 55 outpatients (23 with anxiety diagnoses) followed-up 1 year later (Study 2). Probable diagnostic status in students was determined by the DIA-X/M-CIDI stem screening-questionnaire (SSQ). In the clinical sample, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses were assessed at Time 1 using the DIA-X/M-CIDI. At Time 2, the patient-version of the Clinical Global Impression—Improvement scale (CGI-I) was applied to assess change.
Good psychometric properties, including high test–retest reliability, were found for the dimensional scales except for SP-D. In outpatients, improvement at Time 2 was associated with significant decrease in PD-D, GAD-D, and Cross-D scores.
Major advantages of the scales include that they are brief, concise, and based on a consistent template to measure the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral symptoms of fear and anxiety. Further replication in larger samples is needed. Given its modest psychometric properties, SP-D needs refinement.
Increasing evidence from diverse samples suggests clinical utility of the dimensional anxiety scales.
Lesbian women and gay men become parents via a number of routes depending on national regulatory legislation, access to health care and the implementation of social policies affecting parenting. Obtaining gametes or embryos from a third party is not always an issue. Both men and women can have conceived children within heterosexual relationships; can adopt where it is legal; and can become the same-sex partner of someone who has a child conceived within a heterosexual relationship, and are therefore considered a co-parent or step-parent. Reproductive donation is involved when lesbians become mothers using sperm, eggs or embryos (the latter two usually only if the woman is infertile) from a donor who is anonymous, known or open-identity. Recent legislative changes in the UK now allow both women of a couple to be named on their child’s birth certificate. Lesbians and gay men can donate eggs and sperm, respectively, to lesbian or straight women and conceive a child with the intention of having or not having a parenting role. For a gay man to become a parent using reproductive donation he needs both a surrogate and a source of eggs (or possibly embryos), which may or may not be donated by the surrogate.
In this chapter we discuss some of the ethical debates surrounding same-sex parenting, which we define as gay or lesbian couples becoming joint parents using gametes or embryos from a third party. We are not considering issues for those of other sexual orientations. Our discussion is confined to the context of countries where same-sex relations are legal and where lesbian women and gay men have at least some access to parenthood through donation. The legal and social implications for same-sex parenting outside of this context, as well as lesbian and gay (L&G) rights more generally, are beyond the scope of this chapter.
A question of particular concern in recent years is: what happens to personal income distribution as the average level of income rises? The purpose of this study was to add knowledge to empirical answers to this question by way of estimates of changes in Florida-both within and between regions with different income levels.
Williamson suggests that as significant economic growth first occurs in one region, the absolute income differentials between rich and poor regions are expected to persist or even to increase; but sometime during the course of development, some or all of the disequilibrating tendencies diminish, and the regional differences in incomes decline. Labor migration, capital movements, government policy, geographic size, and labor participation rate were discussed by Williamson as important elements in the exploration of changes over time in incomes among regions.
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