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Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Develop strong network of science teachers interested in promoting scientific research to their students.
Place students in an immersive summer research internship that, when possible, matches their career interests.
Expose students to the numerous career paths within the STEM field.
The program recruits socio-economically disadvantaged students and provides them a stipend, and also accepts students who can participate unpaid.
Local school teachers are engaged in a summer fellowship to learn biotechnologies and research. In Spring these teachers help recruit students and during the subsequent Fall help students with college and scholarship applications.
Students are placed in a variety of laboratories within the Schools of Medicine, Science, Dentistry, Public Health, Informatics, Health and Human Sciences, Engineering and Technology, especially in biomedical engineering. Students are also placed in industry laboratories such as Eli Lilly and the Indiana Bioscience Research Institute.
Long-term program follow-up is done through post-internship surveys to assess impact on graduate and professional school admission.
Since the Indiana CTSI was established in 2008, 872 students have participated in the summer internship.
71% of past interns are underrepresented minorities in science or classified as disadvantaged by NIH criteria.
17% of students interned during grade 10, 72% during grade 11, and 11% during grade 12.
21% of students engage in the program for more than one year.
100% of past interns are currently enrolled in or have graduated college.
Over 60% of those with a bachelors degree proceed to graduate and professional schools and over 80% stay in STEM related fields. These rates are equal for interns from underrepresented minorities or those classified as disadvantaged by NIH criteria.
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT:
Students engaged in the Indiana CTSI STEM program are progressing through the translational science pipeline based on their graduating from college and remaining in the STEM field.
Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal power relations influence valuation and decision-making and are at the core of most environmental conflicts. As actors in sustainability thinking, environmental scientists and practitioners are becoming more aware of their own posture, normative stance, responsibility and relative power in society. Based on a transdisciplinary workshop, our perspective paper provides a normative basis for this new community of scientists and practitioners engaged in the plural valuation of nature.
The oxygen ions in the high temperature superionic state of uranium dioxide (UO2) are known to be in an arrested or jammed state, exhibiting characteristic features of jammed kinetics such as low dimensional string-like ion hopping and dynamical heterogeneity (DH). This thermally-jammed state entails a configurational entropic cost. Using atomistic simulations and the 2PT method, we compute the solid-like (vibrational) and hard sphere-like (configurational) contributions to the total entropy across a temperature range of 1500 K to 2800 K that envelop both the onset of superionic conduction (2000 K) and the second order λ-transition (2610 K). To properly account for the thermally jammed state of the ions, we use an equation of state that is appropriate for the metastable fluid branch. Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with the entropy data extracted from specific heat experiments with a mean error of less than 2%.
As new and more effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) emerge, the development of efficient screening strategies in educationally and racially diverse primary care settings has increased in importance. A set of candidate screening tests and an independent diagnostic assessment were administered to a sample of 318 patients treated at a geriatric primary care center. Fifty-six subjects met criteria for dementia. Exploratory analysis led to the development of three two-stage screening strategies that differed in the composition of the first stage or Rapid Dementia Screen, which is applied to all patients over the age of 65. The second stage, applied to those patients who screen positively for dementia, is accomplished with the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test to detect memory impairment. Using clinical diagnosis as a gold standard, the strategies had high sensitivity and specificity for identifying dementia and performed better for identifying AD than non-AD dementias. Sensitivity and specificity did not differ by race or education. The strategies provide an efficient approach to screening for early dementia. (JINS, 2008, 14, 130–142.)
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