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The long-distance stable transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in plasmas is studied by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Theoretical analysis shows that the beam transport is mainly influenced by three transverse instabilities, where the excitation of self-modulation instability, and the suppression of the filamentation instability and the hosing instability are important to realize the beam stable transport. By modulating the transport parameters such as the electron density ratio, the relativistic Lorentz factor, the beam envelopes and the density profiles, the relativistic bunches having a smooth density profile and a length of several plasma wave periods can suppress the beam-plasma instabilities and propagate in plasmas for long distances with small energy losses. The results provide a reference for the research of long-distance and stable transport of REBs, and would be helpful for new particle beam diagnosis technology and space active experiments.
Reconstruction of a complete Quaternary record of climatic changes in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is not well obtained, because of high relief and extensive surface erosion. In this study, two long cores obtained from thick loess deposits in the region, both contain clear alternations of loess and paleosols, indicating distinct climate changes during the Quaternary. The palaeomagnetic stratigraphy and optically stimulated luminescence dating indicate that the loess deposition began approximately 2.0 Ma ago, with continuous accumulation until the Holocene. Dust accumulation rates in this region are much higher than those in the central Chinese Loess Plateau, suggesting an extended dust source and/or robust transport agent. Variations of magnetic susceptibility of the loess are a good proxy index of warm/wet and cold/dry alternations and are correlated with the intensity of pedogensis. The magnetic susceptibility record reveals that a relatively cold/dry climate dominated the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the Quaternary, punctuated by warm/wet phases. A stepwise strengthening of the plateau summer monsoon, with a significant strengthening at around 1200-1000 ka and at least 7 phases of strengthening of the plateau summer monsoon in the past 800 ka are interpreted from the core data. The cores provide evidence that strengthened warm/wet climates occurred at around 80-130, 190-250, 290-340, 385-420, 500-625, 690-720 and 755-780 ka, which may correlate to warm/wet phases in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The palaeoclimate changes probably were regulated by the glacial-interglacial alternations.
Amorphous transition behavior of silica polymorphs under high pressure has been extensively studied by using diamond-anvil cells or shock wave technologies at ambient temperature. Here, we report the amorphization of crystalline silica fiber in cristobalite polymorph in the temperature range of 1050–1350 °C without pressure applied in vacuum. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, and Raman spectra illustrated the transition. Raman spectra revealed that no significant changes had happened to the SiO4 unit during the transition. It is suggested that the driven-off of interstitial oxygen attributed to the transition and the reaction between the diffusing hydrogen and interstitial oxygen promoted the process.
Bismuth titanate thin films have been prepared on silicon by metalorganic decompositionMOD) technique with bismuth nitrate and titanium butoxide as source materials. The growth procedure of the Bi2Ti2O7 thin films is discussed in this paper. The surface morphology of the Bi2Ti2O7 film was investigated by using Electric Force Microscope (EFM), and the crystallization of the films was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Bismuth titanate thin film prepared on (100) silicon substrate showed strong (111) orientation. Its dielectric properties and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured. The dielectric constant of the Bi2Ti2O7 thin films vs. frequency, in the temperature range of 100-800 °C, were studied. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss for Bi2Ti2O7 are 118 and 0.07 respectively at 100KHz. For the Bi2Ti2O7 films with 0.4µm in thickness annealed at 580 °C for 40 minutes, their leakage current density is 4.06×10−7 A/cm2 at an applied voltage of 15V.
The ferroelectric phase transition has been observed distinctly and the Curie temperature was determined for the Bi2Ti2O7 ceramic films. Capacitance vs. temperature was measured from 27-800 at 1KHz, 100KHz, 100KHz and 1MHz.
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