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This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
This study evaluated the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss when treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids.
The clinical data for 334 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. These data included the initial averaged five-frequency hearing level, patient age, interval between onset of symptoms and treatment, vertigo as a complication, and co-existence of diabetes mellitus.
The overall improvement rate was 69.2 per cent, including better improvement (25.5 per cent), good improvement (21.0 per cent) and fair improvement (22.7 per cent).
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to confer a significant additional therapeutic benefit when used in combination with steroid therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. If performed early, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may bring about hearing improvement in many patients who are unresponsive to initial therapy.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
There is limited information available regarding the benefits and outcomes of resection of pulmonary metastases arising from head and neck cancers.
A retrospective review was performed of 21 patients who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases of primary head and neck malignancies at Hamamatsu University Hospital. Clinical staging, treatment methods, pathological subtype (particularly squamous cell carcinoma), disease-free interval and overall survival were evaluated.
The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of the study participants were 67.0 per cent and 55.0 per cent, respectively, as determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognosis for patients with a disease-free interval of less than 24 months was poor compared to those with a disease-free interval of greater than 24 months (p = 0.0234).
Patients with short disease-free intervals, and possibly those who are older than 60 years, should be categorised as having severe disease. However, pulmonary metastases from head and neck malignancies are potentially curable by surgical resection.
Calcium phosphate cements show self-hardening reaction upon mixing with liquids to form calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. The effects of particle sizes, crystallinities, and natural polymers such as tilapia scale collagen (Col) and hyaluronic acid as a dispersant on the mechanical properties of alpha tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cements mixed with citric acid (CA) as an additive were investigated. Three types of alpha TCP particles were fabricated with spray-dry (SD; 14 μm), freeze-dry (FD; 45 μm), and cold isostatic press (CIP; 134 μm) methods, followed by sintering at 1300°C and ground/crushed. The amounts of Ca dissolution from these particles were in the order of SD > FD > CIP. The CA liquid was added to the powders of SD-FD or SD-CIP, and kneaded under different liquid/powder ratios. The cements containing CIP particles showed lower compressive strength at 22.9 ± 1.5 MPa than those containing FD particles at 28.3 ± 2.5 MPa, even though the apparent densities of the cements containing CIP material was higher. Although the packing density of powders is an important factor on the mechanical properties of cements, the dissolution of Ca ion has a greater impact on the mechanical properties. The addition of Col into the cements increased the mechanical properties at 33.6 ± 2.5 MPa at 1 day to enhance the re-precipitation of CDHA.
Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from cancerous tumor cells in exhaled human breath allows for early diagnosis of various types of cancers. 3D graphene with a large surface area is considered a suitable material for creating novel sensitive VOCs sensors. In this study, 3D graphene and 3D graphene oxide were synthesized from graphene oxide suspension, hydroquinone and formaldehyde by employing polymerization and reduction. The capability of VOC gas sensing was evaluated by measuring the electrical current response in flowing N2 gas over a range of concentrations of acetone or 1-butanol at room temperature. It was observed that the device current correlated well with the VOC concentration. The adsorption of acetone decreased the current, but the adsorption of 1-butanol increased the current during sensing. 3D graphene oxide device was more sensitive than 3D graphene device because of the high concentration of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. These results indicated that 3D graphene and 3D graphene oxide may be the suitable materials for VOCs sensing devices.
We analyze photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) using a hyperspectral imager that records spectrally resolved luminescence images of solar cell absorbers. The system is calibrated to yield the luminescence flux in absolute values. This system enables to quantitatively image physical parameters such as the photovoltage with an uncertainty of less than 30mV. The wide field illumination, low power excitation and fast acquisition brings new insights compared to classical setups such as confocal microscope. Several types of absorbers have been analyzed. For instance, we can investigate spatial fluctuations of the Quasi Fermi Levels splitting in CIGS polycristalline absorbers and link those fluctuations to transport properties. The method is general to the point that third generation PV cells absorbers can also be evaluated. We illustrate the great potential of our setup by imaging carrier temperature in Hot Carriers Solar cells absorbers and quasi Fermi levels splitting in Intermediate Band Solar cells.
Water-splitting by using electric power produced by solar cells is promising system to produce hydrogen without fossil fuels. Oxygen evolving catalyst is, however, major problem to prevent using this system widely because precious materials are used in the catalyst. Considering from the photosynthesis II of plants, the compound of Ca-Mn-O is one of the candidates for the oxygen evolving catalyst. In this study, the synthesis condition and the oxygen evolving electrocatalytic activity of CaMn2O4•xH2O are investigated. The overpotential at 0.1 mA/cm2 was 0.28 V when using the electrode of carbon paste and CaMn2O4•H2O with the weight ratio of 3:1.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
Energy storage is a key technology for establishing a stand-alone renewable energy system. Current energy-storage technologies are, however, not suitable for such an energy system. They are cost ineffective and/or are with low energy-conversion efficiency. Hydrogen generation and storage from water by sunlight is one of these technologies. In this study, a simple concept of hydrogen generation from water by using sunlight, “concentrated photovoltaic electrochemical cell (CPEC)” is proposed. It is experimentally shown that the CPEC operates stably and achieves conversion efficiency from light to hydrogen energy of over 12%.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
We present the internal proper motion of 6.7-GHz methanol masers in S269, an Ultra Compact HII region. The maser distribution in S269 consists of several maser groups, and the spatial structure of the main groups A and B are consistent with the past VLBI image. The remarkable result of comparing the two VLBI maps is that 6.7-GHz methanol maser distribution and velocity range within each group have been kept for eight years. Angular separation between the two groups A and B increases by 3.6 mas, which corresponds to a velocity of 11.5 km s−1.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
We focused on detailed evaluations of properties of the ultra-thin pore-seal layer (< 3 nm-thick), such as Cu diffusion barrier property and thermal stability. Cu diffusion into dense thermal silica and porous silica low-k which are covered with the pore seal layer was evaluated using metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors under bias thermal stress (BTS). Triangular voltage sweep (TVS) measurement shows that the ultra-thin layer on dense thermal silica suppresses the drift of Cu ions. The Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB) lifetime of porous silica low-k covered with the ultra-thin pore seal layer results in a drastic increase of the capacitor lifetime with respect to the no-pore-seal control system (stable at 125 °C at least for 10000 s). Thermal decomposition of bulk material of the pore sealant was measured by thermal gravity (TG) test in nitrogen. Bulk material did not decompose through around 350 °C. The amount of ultra-thin pore seal layer fabricated on silicon wafer after thermal cycle stress in vacuum was measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amount of pore sealant did not decrease even after 2 cycles of 20 min, at 250 °C. Those results show that the ultra-thin layer, which we propose here, has a potential as a pore seal layer for porous low-k films.
Sandia Cave in New Mexico was excavated in the late 1930s by Frank Hibben, who described a unique type of chipped stone artifact-the “Sandia point”-in association with a faunal assemblage that included extinct Pleistocene species. The site was interpreted as a late Pleistocene Paleoindian hunting station, making it the earliest human occupation known in America at the time. Despite the pivotal role the faunal assemblage has played in interpretations of the site, there was never a confirmed behavioral association between the artifacts and the fossils. A subsequent series of controversies about the age of the site and the integrity of the stratigraphy has since pushed Sandia Cave into obscurity. Results from a recent taphonomic study of the large and small mammal assemblages from the original excavations are reported here. These show that the majority of the fauna were accumulated by nonhuman agents (carnivores, raptors, and rodents), but that a small proportion of large mammal fragments retain human modification. The three major points of controversy are discussed in light of these and other findings, and it is shown that Sandia Cave remains an important datapoint in archaeological, paleontological, and paleoecological studies of the region.
Newly developed interferon-gamma release assays have become commercially available to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults. However, little is known about their performance in children. We compared test results between the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold test (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in young children living with pulmonary TB patients in Cambodia. Of 195 children tested with both QFT and TST, the TST-positive rate of 24% was significantly higher than the QFT-positive rate of 17%. The agreement between the test results was considerable (κ-coefficient 0·63). Positive rates increased from 6% to 32% for QFT and from 15% to 43% for TST, according to the sputum smear grades of the index cases. The presence of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars did not significantly affect the results of TST or QFT in a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, QFT can be a substitute for TST in detecting latent TB infection in childhood contacts aged ⩽5 years, especially in those who may have a false-positive TST due to BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.