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We describe the scientific goals and survey design of the First Large Absorption Survey in H i (FLASH), a wide field survey for 21-cm line absorption in neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) at intermediate cosmological redshifts. FLASH will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope and is planned to cover the sky south of
$\delta \approx +40\,\deg$
at frequencies between 711.5 and 999.5 MHz. At redshifts between
$z = 0.4$
(look-back times of 4 – 8 Gyr), the H i content of the Universe has been poorly explored due to the difficulty of carrying out radio surveys for faint 21-cm line emission and, at ultra-violet wavelengths, space-borne searches for Damped Lyman-
absorption in quasar spectra. The ASKAP wide field of view and large spectral bandwidth, in combination with a radio-quiet site, will enable a search for absorption lines in the radio spectra of bright continuum sources over 80% of the sky. This survey is expected to detect at least several hundred intervening 21-cm absorbers and will produce an H i-absorption-selected catalogue of galaxies rich in cool, star-forming gas, some of which may be concealed from optical surveys. Likewise, at least several hundred associated 21-cm absorbers are expected to be detected within the host galaxies of radio sources at
$0.4 < z < 1.0$
, providing valuable kinematical information for models of gas accretion and jet-driven feedback in radio-loud active galactic nuclei. FLASH will also detect OH 18-cm absorbers in diffuse molecular gas, megamaser OH emission, radio recombination lines, and stacked H i emission.
Realizing packaged state-of-the-art performance of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) operating at millimeter wavelengths presents significant challenges in terms of electrical interface circuitry and physical construction. For instance, even with the aid of modern electromagnetic simulation tools, modeling the interaction between the MMIC and its package embedding circuit can lack the necessary precision to achieve optimum device performance. Physical implementation also introduces inaccuracies and requires iterative interface component substitution that can produce variable results, is invasive and risks damaging the MMIC. This paper describes a novel method for in situ optimization of packaged millimeter-wave devices using a pulsed ultraviolet laser to remove pre-selected areas of interface circuit metallization. The method was successfully demonstrated through the optimization of a 183 GHz low noise amplifier destined for use on the MetOp-SG meteorological satellite series. An improvement in amplifier output return loss from an average of 12.9 dB to 22.7 dB was achieved across an operational frequency range of 175–191 GHz and the improved circuit reproduced. We believe that our in situ tuning technique can be applied more widely to planar millimeter-wave interface circuits that are critical in achieving optimum device performance.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
This case of a 65-year-old male with dermatillomania, diffuse anxiety symptoms, and avoidant personality disorder (PD) illustrates the interference of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the diagnostic process and during schema-focused therapy. In conclusion, ADHD in older adults and interference with PD is a subject of clinical importance and worth further investigation.
Molecular transitions recently discovered at redshift zabs=2.059 toward the bright background quasar J2123-0050 are analysed to limit cosmological variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ ≡ mp/me. Observed with the Keck telescope, the optical spectrum has the highest resolving power and largest number (86) of H2 transitions in such analyses so far. Also, (7) HD transitions are used for the first time to constrain μ-variation. These factors, and an analysis employing the fewest possible free parameters, strongly constrain μ's relative deviation from the current laboratory value: Δμ/μ =(+5.6±5.5stat±2.7sys)×10−6. This is the first Keck result to complement recent constraints from three systems at zabs>2.5 observed with the Very Large Telescope.
To date, half a dozen DLAs have been detected in GRB afterglows, but most have modest signal-to-noise ratios. Our detection of a DLA in the afterglow of GRB 030323 is unambiguous: its neutral hydrogen column density is log N(HI)=21.90$\pm$0.07, higher than any (GRB- or QSO-) DLA HI column density inferred directly from Ly$\alpha$ in absorption. We discuss several other properties such as the metallicity, the detection of fine-structure lines of SiII, and our strong upper limit on the H$_2$ content. The GRB afterglow allows us to infer all these quantities, even with the host being as faint as V=28. The successful launch of the Swift satellite (November 2004) has made high-resolution spectroscopy of a large sample of GRB afterglows possible. This will offer a unique way to study in detail the interstellar medium inside GRB host galaxies as a function of redshift.
The present study demonstrated for the first time desirable cytocompatibility properties of carbon nanofibers pertinent for bone prosthetic applications. Specifically, osteoblast (boneforming cells), fibroblast (cells contributing to callus formation and fibrous encapsulation events that result in implant loosening), chondrocyte (cartilage-forming cells), and smooth muscle cell (for comparison purposes) adhesion were determined on carbon nanofibers in the present in vitro study. Results provided evidence that nanometer dimension carbon fibers promoted select osteoblast adhesion, in contrast to the performance of conventional carbon fibers. Moreover, adhesion of other cells was not influenced by carbon fiber dimensions. To determine properties that selectively enhanced osteoblast adhesion, similar cell adhesion assays were performed on poly-lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) casts of carbon fiber compacts previously tested. Compared to PLGA casts of conventional carbon fibers, results provided the first evidence of enhanced select osteoblast adhesion on PLGA casts of nanophase carbon fibers. The summation of these results demonstrate that due to a high degree of nanometer surface roughness, carbon fibers and PLGA with nanometer surface dimensions may be optimal materials to selectively increase osteoblast adhesion necessary for successful orthopedic implant applications.
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