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Written for parents, teachers, and others who live or work with teenagers, this science-based guide describes how you can become a confident 'decision mentor.' Learn to support young people in making good decisions for themselves. Treating decision making as an essential and learnable skill, the six-step 'Decision-Maker Moves' highlight the power and promise of young people as they shape their lives through the options they choose. Stories, examples, and practical tips show how decisions can transform problems into opportunities. Each chapter provides common-sense advice on when and how to talk with teenagers as they weigh up the often-conflicting values, emotions, and trade-offs affecting their choices. We cannot provide young minds with all the answers, but we can help them as they navigate both life-changing and everyday decisions.
Some decision situations are so objectionable or repugnant that people refuse to make a choice. This paper seeks to better understand taboo responses, and to distinguish choices that are truly taboo from those that are merely difficult or confusing. Using 22 scenarios that describe potentially taboo issues, Experiment 1 explores reasons for disapproval of the scenarios. We measure a large number of possible reasons for disapproval and a variety of preference responses (including willingness to accept), in order to test for subtleties in taboo responses. We also test cognitive and affective responses to the scenarios. Experiment 2 further explores the interaction, found in Experiment 1, between affective and cognitive factors. Taken as a whole, our results show that people are able to indicate their disapproval consistently across a variety of preference elicitation methods, that their disapproval is better understood as an attitude measure than as an economic valuation (even when the measure is in monetary terms), and that taboo responses are driven primarily by affect.
Although the need for urgent climate change action is clear, insights about how to make better climate risk management decisions are limited. While significant attention from behavioral researchers has focused on choice architecture, we argue that many of the contexts for addressing climate risks require increased attention to the needs of a deliberative and dynamic choice environment. A key facet of this kind of decision is the need for decision-makers and stakeholders to identify and balance conflicting economic, social and environmental objectives. This recognition of difficult, context-specific trade-offs highlights the need for structuring the decision-making process so that objectives are clearly articulated and prioritized. Equally, policy analyses and deliberations must effectively link priorities with climate risk management options. This restructuring of decision-making about climate change calls for more than a nudge. Scientific and technical efforts must be redirected to help stakeholders and decision-makers better understand the diverse implications of climate change management alternatives and to become better equipped to take actions commensurate with the urgency of the problem.
The national opioid epidemic is severely impacting Indian Country. In this article, we draw upon data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to describe the contours of this crisis among Native Americans. While these data are subject to significant limitations, we show that Native American opioid overdose mortality rates have grown substantially over the last seventeen years. We further find that this increase appears to at least parallel increases seen among non-Hispanic whites, who are often thought to be uniquely affected by this crisis. We then profile tribal medical and legal responses to the opioid epidemic, ranging from tribally-operated medication-assisted therapy to drug diversion courts rooted in traditional tribal cultures.
Both physical activity (PA) and diet are important contributors to health and well-being; however, there is limited information on the association of these behaviours and whether observed associations differ by weight. The present study aimed to evaluate whether nutrient intake is associated with PA and if this association varies by weight in young adults.
Cross-sectional study to analyse the association between PA and nutrient intake.
Participants were stratified as normal weight (18·5 kg/m2 <BMI <25·0 kg/m2) and overweight/obese (BMI≥25·0 kg/m2). PA level (PAL) was calculated (PAL=total daily energy expenditure/RMR) and used to stratify groups (PAL<1·6, 1·6≤PAL<1·9, PAL≥1·9).
Adults (n 407; age 27·6 (sd 3·8) years, 48 % male), with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m2, having at least two 24 h diet recalls and at least 5 d (including two weekend days) of valid, objectively measured PA data were included in the analysis.
In normal-weight participants, higher PAL was associated with higher intakes of minerals (except Ca, Fe and Zn), B-vitamins and choline (P for trend <0·05). In the overweight/obese group, higher PAL was associated with higher intakes of fibre, K, Na and Cu (P for trend <0·05). These differences, however, were no longer significant after additionally controlling for total energy intake.
More active young adults have higher intakes of essential micronutrients. The benefits of PA may be predominantly due to a higher overall food intake while maintaining energy balance rather than a healthier diet.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Contingent valuation (CV) has been used by economists to value public goods for about 25 years. The approach posits a hypothetical market for an unpriced good and asks individuals to state the dollar value they place on a proposed change in its quantity, quality, or access. Development of the CV concept has been described in reviews by Cummings, Brookshire, and Schulze (1986) and Mitchell and Carson (1989). The approach is now widely used to value many different goods whose quantity or quality might be affected by the decisions of a public agency or private developer. Environmental goods have received particular attention, because they are highly valued by society and entail controversial tradeoffs (e.g., manufacturing costs vs. pollution, urban development vs. wetlands protection) but are not usually sold through markets (Bromley, 1986).
The visibility of CV methods has greatly increased following the 1989 interpretation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1986 (CERCLA) by the District of Columbia Circuit Court of Appeals (in Ohio v. United States Department of the Interior). This decision (a) granted equal standing to expressed and revealed preference evaluation techniques (with willingness to pay measures preferred in all cases), (b) accepted nonuse values as a legitimate component of total resource value, and (c) recognized a “distinct preference” in CERCLA for restoring damaged natural resources, rather than simply compensating for the losses (Kopp, Portney, & Smith, 1990).
Risks involve the possibility of damage or loss or injury to individuals or to groups. Whether a risk creates a high level of concern is established through judgments that are made about the definition of the problem, the nature and scope of its consequences, and the likelihood of different exposures. A risk that matters greatly to one person or one group may not be a concern to another because of differences in the context within which it is viewed. This context includes such considerations as the relative importance of other risks, the perception of accompanying benefits, the timing of the expected impacts, uncertainties associated with their receipt, the anticipated response of others, the understanding of realistic alternatives, and so forth. Risk is thus a multidimensional concept, defined differently by different people and in different cultures or at different times to help make sense of, and to create strategies for dealing with, a world that includes perceived dangers and hazards.
All decisions involve some weighing of risks, just as they involve some balancing of costs and benefits. Other things being equal, it is preferable to reduce risks in a given management context. Understanding the values and concerns that arise in the context of specific management options is important, however, because all other things rarely are equal; as a result, decision makers require information about the preferences and priorities of potentially affected individuals or groups toward the relevant set of risks, benefits, and costs.
MgAl2O4 films have been grown epitaxially on both Si(100) and MgO(100) by a novel single source metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process. A single molecular source reagent [magnesium dialuminum isopropoxide, MgAl2(OC3H7)8] having the desired Mg: Al ratio was dissolved in a liquid solution and flash-vaporized into the reactor. Both thermal and plasma-enhanced MOCVD were used to grow epitaxial MgAl2O4 thin films. The Mg: Al ratio in the deposited films was the same as that of the starting compound (Mg: Al = 1:2) over a wide range of deposition conditions. The deposition temperature required for the formation of crystalline spinel was found to be significantly reduced and crystallinity was much improved on Si by using a remote plasma-enhanced MOCVD process. The epitaxial nature of the MgAl2O4 films was established by x-ray pole figure analysis.
Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the structure of polycrystalline and epitaxial barium titanium oxide thin films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra confirmed the presence of the tetragonal ferroelectric phase of BaTiO3 and also revealed several other Ba-Ti-O phases. These films were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and TEM imaging. The structural information provided by the Raman spectra was qualitatively consistent with the X-ray and TEM results. The temperature dependencies of the Raman spectra of two films were examined in the range 25°C-175°C. Raman peaks due to tetragonal BaTiO3 were observed at temperatures well above 132°C, which is the tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature for bulk single-crystal BaTiO3. This may indicate stabilization of the tetragonal phase by an anisotropic film-substrate interaction or by inter-grain stresses.
Ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO3 are notable for their nonlinear optical and electrical properties. Optical frequency doubling in thin films integrated with compact semiconductor laser pumped solid state lasers is an attractive candidate for high efficiency generation of blue light. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a single liquid source has been used to grow BaTiO3 films on MgO. X-ray diffraction in the pole figure configuration indicates the films to be epitaxial, and rocking curves had FWHM ≈ 0.7°. An optical scatterometer (λ = 633 nm.) has been used to identify deposition conditions that result in the lowest scatter losses. This paper describes these results as well as waveguide designs to enhance the second harmonic generation efficiency in epitaxial BaTiO3 films on MgO.
A survey was made of studies reporting population prevalence rates for the different types of neurotic disorders in order to determine the utility of these rates for familial and genetic research. Rates varied considerably among studies both for all neuroses and for particular types of neuroses, even among studies using similar methods examining similar populations. The method of case ascertainment (personal interview versus record searches) and the threshold for defining an individual as affected are important contributors to variation. The use of the published prevalence rates for quantifying familial and genetic effects on the neurotic disorders would be premature.
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