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Identifying youths most at risk to COVID-19-related mental illness is essential for the development of effective targeted interventions.
To compare trajectories of mental health throughout the pandemic in youth with and without prior mental illness and identify those most at risk of COVID-19-related mental illness.
Data were collected from individuals aged 18–26 years (N = 669) from two existing cohorts: IMAGEN, a population-based cohort; and ESTRA/STRATIFY, clinical cohorts of individuals with pre-existing diagnoses of mental disorders. Repeated COVID-19 surveys and standardised mental health assessments were used to compare trajectories of mental health symptoms from before the pandemic through to the second lockdown.
Mental health trajectories differed significantly between cohorts. In the population cohort, depression and eating disorder symptoms increased by 33.9% (95% CI 31.78–36.57) and 15.6% (95% CI 15.39–15.68) during the pandemic, respectively. By contrast, these remained high over time in the clinical cohort. Conversely, trajectories of alcohol misuse were similar in both cohorts, decreasing continuously (a 15.2% decrease) during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic symptom severity predicted the observed mental health trajectories in the population cohort. Surprisingly, being relatively healthy predicted increases in depression and eating disorder symptoms and in body mass index. By contrast, those initially at higher risk for depression or eating disorders reported a lasting decrease.
Healthier young people may be at greater risk of developing depressive or eating disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Targeted mental health interventions considering prior diagnostic risk may be warranted to help young people cope with the challenges of psychosocial stress and reduce the associated healthcare burden.
Background: Inappropriate urine-culture ordering is associated with increased antibiotic prescribing in myriad care environments, including acute and long-term care. In primary care, where urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly encountered, the appropriateness of urine-culture ordering has not been well described. We examined the appropriateness of urine-culture ordering and factors associated with inappropriate urine-culture ordering in primary care. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a previous prospective study that included patients aged ≥18 years presenting with provider-suspected UTI with an accompanying urine culture at 2 safety-net, primary-care clinics in Houston, Texas, between November 2018 and March 2020. Patients with complicated or uncomplicated UTI were included, but those with a urinary catheter and pregnant females were excluded. Urine cultures were considered appropriate if the patient had an evidence-based symptom of UTI (ie, dysuria, frequency, urgency, hematuria, fever, chills, costovertebral angle tenderness, suprapubic, pelvic, or flank pain, or nephrolithiasis) as a diagnostic code or listed in providers’ free-text documentation. Diagnostic codes for symptoms that were not evidence based were grouped into categories based on body system, visit type (eg, routine visit), or sign or symptom clusters. We evaluated the relationships among demographic and clinical factors, the clinic visited, and non–evidence-based diagnostic codes with inappropriately ordered cultures. Results: We examined 870 cultures from 807 patients. Overall, 61.5% of patients were Hispanic (61.5%) and 23% were African American or Black. Also, 70.6% were women; the mean age was 49.2 years (SD, 14.6); and the mean Elixhauser score was 1.9 (SD, 5.4). Among the 870 cultures, 210 (24%) were ordered inappropriately. Dysuria (n = 289), frequency (n = 129), and UTI or cystitis (n = 117) were the most common, evidence-based codes among appropriate cultures. In the adjusted model, the nonteaching clinic (aOR, 6.33) and diagnostic codes comprising the following categories were associated with inappropriate culturing: acute lower back pain (aOR, 5.42), cardiac-related visits (aOR, 2.41), urinary incontinence (aOR, 4.46), routine health visits (aOR, 3.66), urine characteristics (aOR, 14.32), voiding difficulties (aOR, 3.88), and well-woman visits with a gynecological exam or family planning aspect (aOR, 12.27) (all P < .05). Conclusions: This research highlights potential gaps or miscues in provider behavior related to urine culture ordering, and unveiled problematic culturing related to urine characteristics and to routine visits, especially of a gynecological nature. This information can be incorporated into diagnostic stewardship interventions to address misconceptions, and to further explore the reasoning or processes wherein urine cultures are ordered for routine visits.
Risk of suicide-related behaviors is elevated among military personnel transitioning to civilian life. An earlier report showed that high-risk U.S. Army soldiers could be identified shortly before this transition with a machine learning model that included predictors from administrative systems, self-report surveys, and geospatial data. Based on this result, a Veterans Affairs and Army initiative was launched to evaluate a suicide-prevention intervention for high-risk transitioning soldiers. To make targeting practical, though, a streamlined model and risk calculator were needed that used only a short series of self-report survey questions.
We revised the original model in a sample of n = 8335 observations from the Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers-Longitudinal Study (STARRS-LS) who participated in one of three Army STARRS 2011–2014 baseline surveys while in service and in one or more subsequent panel surveys (LS1: 2016–2018, LS2: 2018–2019) after leaving service. We trained ensemble machine learning models with constrained numbers of item-level survey predictors in a 70% training sample. The outcome was self-reported post-transition suicide attempts (SA). The models were validated in the 30% test sample.
Twelve-month post-transition SA prevalence was 1.0% (s.e. = 0.1). The best constrained model, with only 17 predictors, had a test sample ROC-AUC of 0.85 (s.e. = 0.03). The 10–30% of respondents with the highest predicted risk included 44.9–92.5% of 12-month SAs.
An accurate SA risk calculator based on a short self-report survey can target transitioning soldiers shortly before leaving service for intervention to prevent post-transition SA.
Impactful, transdisciplinary scientific discoveries are created by teams of researchers spanning multiple disciplines, but collaboration across disciplines can be challenging. We examined how team dynamics and collaboration are related to successes and barriers faced by teams of researchers from multiple disciplines.
A mixed-methods approach was used to examine 12 research teams granted multidisciplinary pilot awards. Team members were surveyed to assess their team dynamics and individual views about transdisciplinary research. Forty-seven researchers (59.5%) responded, including two to eight members from each funded team. Associations were examined between collaborative dynamics and scholarly product outcomes, including manuscripts, grant proposals, and awarded grants. One member from each team was selected for an in-depth interview to contextualize and extend information about collaborative processes, successes, and barriers to performing transdisciplinary research.
Quality of team interactions was positively associated with achievement of scholarly products (r = 0.64, p = 0.02). Satisfaction with team members (r = 0.38) and team collaboration scores (r = 0.43) also demonstrated positive associations with achievement of scholarly products, but these were not statistically significant. Qualitative results support these findings and add further insight into aspects of the collaborative process that were particularly important to foster success on multidisciplinary teams. Beyond scholarly metrics, additional successes from the multidisciplinary teams were identified through the qualitative portion of the study including career development and acceleration for early career researchers.
Both the quantitative and qualitative study results indicate that effective collaboration is critical to multidisciplinary research team success. Development and/or promotion of team science-based trainings for researchers would promote these collaborative skills.
Optimizing the effectiveness of a team-based approach to unite multiple disciplines in advancing specific translational areas of research is foundational to improving clinical practice. The current study was undertaken to examine investigators’ experiences of participation in transdisciplinary team science initiatives, with a focus on challenges and recommendations for improving effectiveness.
Qualitative interviews were conducted with investigators from twelve multidisciplinary teams awarded pilot research funding by the University of Kentucky College of Medicine to better understand the barriers and facilitators to effective team science within an academic medical center. An experienced qualitative researcher facilitated one-on-one interviews, which lasted about one hour. Structured consensus coding and thematic analysis were conducted.
The sample was balanced by gender, career stage (five were assistant professor at the time of the award, seven were senior faculty), and training (six were PhDs; six were MD physicians). Key themes at the team-level centered on the tension between clinical commitments and research pursuits and the limitations for effective team functioning. Access to tangible support from home departments and key university centers was identified as a critical organizational facilitator of successful project completion. Organizational barriers centered on operationalizing protected time for physicians, gaps in effective mentoring, and limitations in operational support.
Prioritizing tailored mentoring and career development support for early career faculty, and particularly physician faculty, emerged as a key recommendation for improving team science in academic medical centers. The findings contribute to establishing best practices and policies for team science in academic medical centers.
The transition from military service to civilian life is a high-risk period for suicide attempts (SAs). Although stressful life events (SLEs) faced by transitioning soldiers are thought to be implicated, systematic prospective evidence is lacking.
Participants in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS) completed baseline self-report surveys while on active duty in 2011–2014. Two self-report follow-up Longitudinal Surveys (LS1: 2016–2018; LS2: 2018–2019) were subsequently administered to probability subsamples of these baseline respondents. As detailed in a previous report, a SA risk index based on survey, administrative, and geospatial data collected before separation/deactivation identified 15% of the LS respondents who had separated/deactivated as being high-risk for self-reported post-separation/deactivation SAs. The current report presents an investigation of the extent to which self-reported SLEs occurring in the 12 months before each LS survey might have mediated/modified the association between this SA risk index and post-separation/deactivation SAs.
The 15% of respondents identified as high-risk had a significantly elevated prevalence of some post-separation/deactivation SLEs. In addition, the associations of some SLEs with SAs were significantly stronger among predicted high-risk than lower-risk respondents. Demographic rate decomposition showed that 59.5% (s.e. = 10.2) of the overall association between the predicted high-risk index and subsequent SAs was linked to these SLEs.
It might be possible to prevent a substantial proportion of post-separation/deactivation SAs by providing high-risk soldiers with targeted preventive interventions for exposure/vulnerability to commonly occurring SLEs.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Childhood survivors of ALL are at considerable risk for late effects which are exacerbated by excess weight. The proposed study involves the adaption and evaluation of the first empirically supported intervention for childhood survivors of ALL that is consistent with all national recommendations for the treatment of childhood obesity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The proposed intervention will be adapted from family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT) a multicomponent intervention which targets diet, activity, behavioral skills, parenting, and social facilitation among children and their parents. The Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications-Enhanced structure (FRAME), a dissemination and implementation framework, will guide the adaptation, allowing for the incorporation of feedback previously gathered from key stakeholders. A single-arm, non-randomized trial of the adapted intervention will then be conducted to evaluate its acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary indications of efficacy including measures of relative weight change and associated health-related behaviors among 40 childhood ALL survivors and their families. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Self-reported feedback from families at the end of treatment (EoT) is anticipated to demonstrate that this intervention will be regarded as both acceptable and feasible. Other measures of feasibility will include attendance and retention rates, which are expected to reflect to those of previous FBT trials (92% and 85%, respectively). Preliminary indications of the efficacy of the adapted intervention will be investigated through the comparison of a series of measurements taken at both baseline and EoT. Changes in relative weight will be assessed and are expected to meet a previously established range of clinically meaningful reduction in child percent overweight of 9 units or more. Improvements in dietary intake, physical activity, and health related quality of life are also anticipated. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge gained from the implementation of the first evidence-based intervention adapted for childhood survivors of ALL will be critical to the justification of a larger-scale, randomized controlled trial and holds promise to effectively modify the risk for chronic disease among a vulnerable population.
Using a machine-learning model, we examined drivers of antibiotic prescribing for antibiotic-inappropriate acute respiratory illnesses in a large US claims data set. Antibiotics were prescribed in 11% of the 42 million visits in our sample. The model identified outpatient setting type, patient age mix, and state as top drivers of prescribing.
In this article I examine the editing and publishing of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man by Albert Erskine. Over the course of the piece, I deploy letters, drafts, and other material drawn from both Ellison's archive in the Library of Congress and Erskine's own archive at the University of Virginia to unpack how Erskine, as a white editor at a powerful international publishing house, conceived of his role in shepherding to market and marketing what he saw as a major literary work by an African American author.
In March 2020, at the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States, the Southern California Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Consortium was formed. The consortium included physicians and coordinators from the 4 ECMO centers in San Diego County. Guidelines were created to ensure that ECMO was delivered equitably and in a resource effective manner across the county during the pandemic. A biomedical ethicist reviewed the guidelines to ensure ECMO use would provide maximal community benefit of this limited resource. The San Diego County Health and Human Services Agency further incorporated the guidelines into its plans for the allocation of scarce resources. The consortium held weekly video conferences to review countywide ECMO capacity (including census and staffing), share data, and discuss clinical practices and difficult cases. Equipment exchanges between ECMO centers maximized regional capacity. From March 1 to November 30, 2020, consortium participants placed 97 patients on ECMO. No eligible patients were denied ECMO due to lack of resources or capacity. The Southern California ECMO Consortium may serve as a model for other communities seeking to optimize ECMO resources during the current COVID-19 or future pandemics.
Tim Groenland's The Art of Editing is an exciting new addition to the field of literary sociology, making a valuable contribution to a discipline which has seen a resurgence since the turn of the millennium. In his seminal early work in the field, John Sutherland traces the origins of this kind of publishing history to Robert Escarpit's Sociology of Literature (1958), which he describes as the beginning of “modern, serious work” in considering the effects of the literary marketplace on the fiction of a particular era. However, it is the first two decades of the twenty-first century that have seen the most significant growth in sociological studies of literary production, a trend that Alan Liu calls “the resurgent history of the book.” This is a “resurgence” that Liu argues has resulted in “restoring to view … vital nodes in the circuit” of literary production, including “editors, publishers, translators, booksellers,” and many others. This recent growth in scholarly interest in the production and circulation of literary texts includes other significant figures such as James F. English, Mark McGurl, John B. Thompson, Loren Glass, Paul Crosthwaite, and David D. Hall.
Tree-rings representing annual dates from live and deadwood Pinus flexilis at ten sites across the central Great Basin (~38°N) yielded a cumulative record across 4002 years (1983 BC–AD 2019). Individual site chronologies ranged in length from 861–4002 years; all were continuous over their sample depths. Correlations of growth with climate were positive for water relations and mostly negative for summer temperatures. Growth was generally correlated across sites, with the central Nevada stands most distinct. Although growth was low during the Late Holocene Dry Period, variability marked this interval, suggesting that it was not pervasively dry. All sites had low growth during the first half of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, high growth during the mid-interval pluvial, and low growth subsequently. Little synchrony occurred across sites for the early Little Ice Age. After AD 1650, growth was depressed until the early twentieth century. Growth at all sites declined markedly ca. AD 1985, was similar to the lowest growth period of the full records, and indicative of recent severe droughts. A small rebound in growth occurred after ca. AD 2010. A strong signal for Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) occurred in growth response at most sites. The persistence of all stands despite climate variability indicates high resilience of this species.
To successfully reduce overall invasive plant cover over time, an effective treatment plan must be established such that mortality exceeds new colonization and resprouting growth rates. However, few evaluations of the effects of long-term, consistent treatment at different intervals exist. We report the effects of treatment intensity on Old World climbing fern [Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br.], Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi), and punktree [Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. F. Blake] as part of a large restoration project that has been underway for 6 yr in Telegraph Swamp at Babcock Ranch Preserve, a 27,520-hectare (68,000-acre) conservation area in Florida, USA. We found that at the end of the 6-yr period, for all three species, average live cover did not exceed 5% across all transects. In addition, dead foliar cover was higher than live cover for all three invasive plants, indicating progress toward restoration goals. We also found that percent live cover of L. microphyllum was significantly reduced only after four or more treatments were applied during the 6-yr period, as opposed to when three or fewer treatments were applied. Reductions in percent cover of live foliage were apparent only when the treatments were applied more often than biennially, as opposed to less often than biennially. Additionally, we found higher L. microphyllum cover in clear-cut and replanted cypress stands than in natural stands. Based on these findings, we conclude that treatments applied four or more times, or more often than biennially, were more effective at significantly reducing advanced invasions of L. microphyllum, S. terebinthifolia, and M. quinquenervia, especially where previous management activities or their effects may have increased the cover of invasive plants.
Cyclonic storms (often called hurricanes, typhoons, or cyclones) often cause population declines in vulnerable bird species, and the intensity of these storms appears to be increasing due to climate change. Prior studies have reported short-term impacts of hurricanes on avifauna, but few have examined long-term impacts. Over two decades (1993–2018), we periodically surveyed a subspecies of West Indian Woodpecker Melanerpes superciliaris nyeanus on San Salvador, a small island in The Bahamas, to determine its distribution on the island, habitat use, and effects of hurricanes on abundance and population size. We conducted passive and playback surveys, supplemented with mist-netting. Woodpeckers were found only in the northern part of San Salvador, despite extensive surveys throughout other accessible areas of the island. Birds occupied areas with taller coppice adjacent to sabal palm Sabal palmetto groves, which were used for nesting. After hurricanes with >160 kph winds passed over San Salvador, woodpecker densities declined to 35–40% of pre-hurricane densities, but generally recovered back to pre-hurricane densities within 2–3 years. Based on an estimated density of woodpeckers within a ~1,400 ha occupied area, we calculated a population size of approximately 240 individuals (CI = 68-408). However, the population declined to far lower numbers immediately following hurricanes. Under IUCN Red List criteria, M. s. nyeanus classifies as ‘Critically Endangered’, and could be especially sensitive to future hurricanes if they occur at a high enough frequency or intensity to prevent the population from rebounding. Given the small size, isolation, and vulnerability of this population, we recommend preservation of the core habitat, continued monitoring, and further research. Our study shows that small, threatened bird populations can be resilient to the effects of hurricanes, but increased intensity of hurricanes, in combination with other threats, may limit this resilience in the future.
Progress toward racial equality requires the engagement of the American state, centered in the presidency and the executive branch, and in fact is not possible without the state's direct and forceful intervention. The key to this transformation is what we call “Forceful Federalism,” a multidimensional understanding of the American state. Forceful Federalism has four essential dimensions: standard-setting, coercion, associationalism, and fiscal authority. These four processes rise and fall over time, each charting its own history and unfolding according to its own logic. These processes usually work against each other. But occasionally they align with each other so that the state can pursue and achieve even difficult and challenging policy aims in a focused way. We sketch the outlines of Forceful Federalism and demonstrate its explanatory power with a case study of Forceful Federalism in action: James Meredith's integration of the University of Mississippi in 1962. The Meredith case exemplifies the convergence of the four dimensions of Forceful Federalism and marks the first time the modern American state was thus mobilized on behalf of civil rights. The case offers suggestive evidence that Forceful Federalism was a necessary condition for the emergence of the Civil Rights State.
Right cerebellar-left frontal (RC-LF) white matter integrity (WMI) has been associated with working memory. However, prior studies have employed measures of working memory that include processing speed and attention. We examined the relationships between the RC-LF WMI and processing speed, attention, and working memory to clarify the relationship of RC-LF WMI with a specific cognitive function. Right superior longitudinal fasciculus II (SLF II) WMI and visual attention were included as a negative control tract and task to demonstrate a double dissociation.
Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors [n = 29, age: M = 22 years (SD = 5), 45% female] and demographically matched controls were recruited (n = 29). Tests of auditory attention span, working memory, and visual attention served as cognitive measures. Participants completed a 3-T MRI diffusion-weighted imaging scan. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) served as WMI measures. Partial correlations between WMI and cognitive scores included controlling for type of treatment.
A correlational double dissociation was found. RC-LF WMI was associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .42, p = .03; RD: r = −.50, p = .01) and was not associated with visual attention (FA: r = −.11, p = .59; RD: r = −.11, p = .57). SLF II FA WMI was associated with visual attention (FA: r = .44, p = .02; RD: r = −.17, p = .40) and was not associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .24, p = .22; RD: r = −.10, p = .62).
The results show that RC-LF WMI is associated with auditory attention span rather than working memory per se and provides evidence for a specificity based on the correlational double dissociation.
A total of 38 long-term care facilities within a region participated in a 3-month quality improvement initiative focused on environmental cleaning and disinfection. Significant improvements in daily and discharge cleaning were observed during the project period. Further study of the sustainability and clinical impact of this type of initiative is warranted.
Prior studies indicate greater disease burden for obesity among rural compared with urban residents but no differences for mood disorder based on geographic location. Recent attention has focused on the need to examine regional rural–urban disparities in disease burden. We focused on mood disorders and obesity prevalence within three southeastern Minnesota counties served by the Mayo Clinic Center for Translational Science Award, in Rochester, Minnesota, as these were top priorities identified in community health needs assessments.
Cross-sectional study to assess the association of rural–urban locality on 5-year (2009–2014) prevalence of mood disorder and obesity obtained using the Rochester Epidemiological Project medical records linkage system, among subjects residing in three mixed rural–urban counties on April 1, 2014. Multivariable analyses adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status using an individual housing-based measure, and counties.
The study cohort (percent rural location) included 91,202 (15%) for Olmsted, 10,197 (51%) in Dodge, and 10,184 (57%) in Wabasha counties. On multivariate analysis, 5-year prevalence of mood disorders and obesity was significantly greater for urban compared with rural residents, after adjusting for confounders; odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.21 (1.17–1.26), P < 0.001, and 1.05 (1.01–1.10), P = 0.016, respectively. Observed effects were not modified in additional models adjusted for health care utilization (HCU; ≥1 general medical examination visit and flu vaccination).
Rural–urban health disparities for burden of mood disorders and obesity are independent of socioeconomic status and HCU in a Midwestern community. It is important to assess potential regional heterogeneity of rural–urban disparities on health outcomes.