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There is a major demand for people with scientific training in a wide range of professions based on and maintaining relations with science. However, there is a lack of good first-hand information about alternative career paths to research. From entrepreneurship, industry and the media to government, public relations, activism and teaching, this is a readable guide to science based skills, lifestyles and career paths. The ever-narrowing pyramid of opportunities within an academic career structure, or the prospect of a life in the laboratory losing its attraction, mean that many who trained in science and engineering now look for alternative careers. Thirty role models who began by studying many different disciplines give personal guidance for graduates, postgraduates and early-career scientists in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. This book is an entertaining resource for ideas about, and directions into, the many fields which they may not be aware of or may not have considered.
Residual herbicides are routinely recommended to aid in control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth in cotton. Acetochlor, a chloroacetamide herbicide, applied PRE, controls Palmer amaranth. A microencapsulated (ME) formulation of acetochlor is now registered for PRE application in cotton. Field research was conducted in North Carolina to evaluate cotton tolerance and Palmer amaranth control by acetochlor ME alone and in various combinations. Treatments, applied PRE, consisted of acetochlor ME, pendimethalin, or no herbicide arranged factorially with diuron, fluometuron, fomesafen, diuron plus fomesafen, and no herbicide. The PRE herbicides were followed by glufosinate applied twice POST and diuron plus MSMA directed at layby. Acetochlor ME was less injurious to cotton than pendimethalin. Acetochlor ME alone or in combination with other herbicides reduced early season cotton growth 5 to 8%, whereas pendimethalin alone or in combinations injured cotton 11 to 13%. Early season injury was transitory, and by 65 to 84 d after PRE treatment, injury was no longer noticeable. Before the first POST application of glufosinate, acetochlor ME and pendimethalin controlled Palmer amaranth 84 and 64%, respectively. Control by acetochlor ME was similar to control by diuron plus fomesafen and greater than control by diuron, fluometuron, or fomesafen alone. Greater than 90% control was obtained with acetochlor ME mixed with diuron or fomesafen. Palmer amaranth control was similar with acetochlor ME plus a full or reduced rate of fomesafen. Acetochlor ME controlled large crabgrass and goosegrass at 91 and 100% compared with control at 83 and 91%, respectively, by pendimethalin. Following glufosinate, applied twice POST, and diuron plus MSMA, at layby, 96 to 99% control was obtained late in the season by all treatments, and no differences among herbicide treatments were noted for cotton yield. This research demonstrated that acetochlor ME can be safely and effectively used in cotton weed management programs.
Research was conducted from 2011 to 2014 to determine weed population
dynamics and frequency of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with
herbicide programs consisting of glyphosate, dicamba, and residual
herbicides in dicamba-tolerant cotton. Five treatments were maintained in
the same plots over the duration of the experiment: three sequential POST
applications of glyphosate with or without pendimethalin plus diuron PRE;
three sequential POST applications of glyphosate plus dicamba with and
without the PRE herbicides; and a POST application of glyphosate plus
dicamba plus acetochlor followed by one or two POST applications of
glyphosate plus dicamba without PRE herbicides. Additional treatments
included alternating years with three sequential POST applications of
glyphosate only and glyphosate plus dicamba POST with and without PRE
herbicides. The greatest population of Palmer amaranth was observed when
glyphosate was the only POST herbicide throughout the experiment. Although
diuron plus pendimethalin PRE in a program with only glyphosate POST
improved control during the first 2 yr, these herbicides were ineffective by
the final 2 yr on the basis of weed counts from soil cores. The lowest
population of Palmer amaranth was observed when glyphosate plus dicamba were
applied regardless of PRE herbicides or inclusion of acetochlor POST.
Frequency of GR Palmer amaranth was 8% or less when the experiment was
initiated. Frequency of GR Palmer amaranth varied by herbicide program
during 2012 but was similar among all herbicide programs in 2013 and 2014.
Similar frequency of GR Palmer amaranth across all treatments at the end of
the experiment most likely resulted from pollen movement from Palmer
amaranth treated with glyphosate only to any surviving female plants
regardless of PRE or POST treatment. These data suggest that GR Palmer
amaranth can be controlled by dicamba and that dicamba is an effective
alternative mode of action to glyphosate in fields where GR Palmer amaranth
Electron microscopy (EM), cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) are essential techniques used for characterizing basic virus morphology and determining the three-dimensional structure of viruses. Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pathogenic viruses to humans. The purification of enveloped viruses from cell culture presents certain challenges. Specifically, the inclusion of host-membrane-derived vesicles, the complete destruction of the viruses, and the disruption of the internal architecture of individual virus particles. Here, we present a strategy for capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids (AG) for use in both conventional EM and cryo-EM/ET applications. We examined the utility of AG for the selective capture of human immunodeficiency virus virus-like particles, influenza A, and measles virus. We applied nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid lipid layers in combination with molecular adaptors to selectively adhere the viruses to the AG surface. This further development of the AG method may prove essential for the gentle and selective purification of enveloped viruses directly onto EM grids for ultrastructural analyses.