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Stibiogoldfieldite, Cu12(Sb2Te2)S13, was approved as a new mineral species from the Mohawk mine, Goldfield mining district, Esmeralda County, Nevada, USA. It occurs as metallic anhedral grains, dark grey in colour. It is associated with quartz, pyrite and an Ag–Bi–(S,Se) phase (holotype material) and with quartz, pyrite, calaverite, bismuthinite, bohdanowiczite, and the Ag–Bi–(S,Se) phase (cotype material). In reflected light, stibiogoldfieldite is isotropic, grey in colour, with indistinct brownish shade. Reflectance data in air [R (%)] are: 31.1 at 470 nm, 30.9 at 546 nm, 30.8 at 589 nm and 31.0 at 650 nm. Electron microprobe analysis for holotype material gave (in wt.% – average of 60 spot analyses): Cu 45.03(60), Ag 0.26(7), Fe 0.02(3), Zn 0.13(15), Sn 0.02(4), Pb 0.05(6), Sb 8.02(62), As 2.80(65), Bi 2.77(87), Te 15.15(1.24), S 24.50(32), Se 0.52(11), total 99.27(69). On the basis of (As + Sb + Te + Bi) = 4 atoms per formula unit (apfu), the empirical formula of stibiogoldfieldite is (Cu12.05Ag0.04Zn0.03Fe0.01)Σ12.13(Sb1.12As0.63Bi0.23Te2.02)Σ4.00(S12.99Se0.11)Σ13.10. Chemical data on an additional sample from the same locality (cotype material) gave the following results (in wt.% – average of 181 spot analyses): Cu 43.84(63), Ag 0.21(7), Sb 5.92(78), As 2.63(45), Te 20.07(1.19), S 25.13(53), Se 0.97(35), total 99.47(66). On the basis of (As + Sb + Te + Bi) = 4 apfu, the empirical formula of cotype material is (Cu11.30Ag0.03)Σ11.33(Sb0.80As0.57Bi0.06Te2.57)Σ4.00(S12.83Se0.20)Σ13.03. Stibiogoldfieldite is cubic, I$\overline 4$3m, with unit-cell parameters a = 10.3466(17) Å, V = 1107.6(5) Å3 and Z = 2 (holotype). Unit-cell parameters for the cotype sample are a = 10.3035(2) Å and V = 1093.83(7) Å3. The crystal structure of holotype stibiogoldfieldite was refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to a final R1 = 0.032 on the basis of 285 reflections with Fo > 4σ(Fo) and 20 refined parameters. Stibiogoldfieldite is isotypic with other members of the tetrahedrite group.
Ferro-ferri-hornblende is a new member of the amphibole supergroup (IMA-CNMNC 2015-054). It has been found in a rock specimen from the historical collection of Leandro De Magistris, which was collected at the Traversella mine (Val Chiusella, Ivrea, Piemonte, Italy). The specimen was catalogued as ‘speziaite', and contains a wide range of amphibole compositions from tremolite/actinolite to magnesio-hastingsite. The end-member formula of ferro-ferri-hornblende is A□BCa2c(Fe+Fe3+)T(Si7Al) O22W(OH)2 , which requires SiO2 43.41, Al2O3 5.26, FeO 29.66, Fe2O3 8.24 CaO 11.57, H2O 1.86, total 100.00 wt.%. The empirical formula derived from electron microprobe analysis and single-crystal structure refinement for the holotype crystal is A(Na0.10K0.13)
Al0.12Ti 0.01)Σ=5.01T(Si7.26Al0. 74)Σ=8.00 O22W(OH1.89F0.01C10.10)Σ=2.00- Ferro-ferri-hornblende is biaxial (-), with α = 1.697(2), P = 1 .722(5), γ = 1.726(5) and 2V (meas.) = 35.7(1.4)°, 2V (calc.) = 43.1°. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.9307(5), b = 18.2232(10), c = 5.3190(3) Å, β = 104.857(1)°, V= 930.40 (9) Å3, Z= 2, space group C2/m. The a:b:c ratio is 0.545:1:0.292. The strongest eight reflections in the powder X-ray pattern [d values (in Å), I, (hkl)] are: 8.493, 100, (110); 2.728, 69, (151); 3.151, 47, (310); 2.555, 37, (); 2.615, 32, (061); 2.359, 28, (); 3.406, 26, (131); 2.180, 25, (261). Type material is deposited in the collections of the Museo di Mineralogia, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell'Ambiente, Università di Pavia, under the catalogue number 2015-01. Sample M/U15285 from the historical collection of Luigi Colomba, presently at the Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, was also checked, and the presence of ferro-ferri-hornblende was confirmed.
Twenty lactating Girgentana goats were used to evaluate the effect of morning v. afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, receiving 10 kg of fresh Berseem clover cut at 9.00 (AM group) or 16.00 (PM group), respectively; 500 g of concentrate was given individually to goats before offering forage. Feed intake increased (P<0·01) in the PM group (30·5 v. 25·3 g dry matter/kg body weight), associated with the different nutrient content of diets: lower crude protein but higher dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total fatty acids in the PM-harvested forage. Milk production, protein and casein content were higher (P<0·05) in the PM group (1415 g/d, 3·25% and 2·42% v. 1277 g/d, 3·15% and 2·33%, respectively), whereas no differences between groups were detected for milk fat, lactose or urea content. Body weight slowly decreased from the start to the end of the experiment, without differences between groups. This study showed an important milk yield responses in Girgentana goats offered afternoon-cut compared with morning-cut Berseem clover, due to a marked increase in WSC in the afternoon-cut forage.
A study was carried out to evaluate how the energy level of the diet can affect milk production and quality in Girgentana lactating goats in relation to polymorphism at the αs1-casein (CSN1S1) genotype locus. Twenty-seven goats, homogeneous for milk production (1·5±0·3 kg/d), days of lactation (90±10 d) and body weight (35·8±5·5 kg) were selected on the basis of their CSN1S1 genotype, as follows: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles, nine goats homozygous for weak alleles (FF) and nine goats heterozygous (AF). The goats were used in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with three genotypes (AA, FF, AF) and three diets at different energy levels (100%, 65% and 30% of hay inclusion). The experiment consisted of three simultaneous 3×3 Latin squares for the three genotypes, with one square for each level of hay inclusion in the diet. All the animals were housed in individual pens. Each experimental period lasted 23 d and consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 8 d for data and sample collection, during which the goats received the scheduled diet ad libitum. The animals were fed three different diets designed to have the same crude protein content (about 15%) but different energy levels: a pelleted alfalfa hay (H100) and two feeds including 65% (H65) and 30% (H30) of alfalfa hay (respectively 1099, 1386 and 1590 kcal NE for lactation/kg DM). All the diets were ground and pelleted (6 mm diameter). AA goats were more productive than AF and FF goats (respectively: 1419 v. 1145 and 1014 g/d; P=0·002). Indeed the interaction energy level×genotype was significant (P=0·018): in fact AA goats showed their milk increase only when fed with concentrates. Differences in protein and in casein levels between the three genotypes were in line with results expected from the different allele contribution to αs1-casein synthesis. Milk urea levels were significantly lower in AA goats compared with AF and FF genotypes (respectively 32·7 v. 40·4 and 40·4 mg/dl; P=0·049) and significantly lower when goats were fed with 65H and 30H diets than with 100H diet (respectively 37·4 and 34·3 v. 41·7 mg/dl; P<0·001). Indeed, a significant interaction genotype×diet (P=0·043) occurred for milk urea, which was significantly lower in AA goats but only when fed with concentrates (65H and 30H). Blood concentrations of energy indicators (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyric acid) were not influenced by genotype. The results confirm that strong alleles are associated with a greater efficiency of feed utilization and seem to show that a high energy level of the diet can further improve this efficiency.
In goats, αs1-casein polymorphism is related to different rates of protein synthesis. Two genetic variants, A and F, have been identified as strong and weak alleles based on a production of 3·5 and 0·45 g/l of αs1-casein per allele. The aim of the trial was to test whether goats can select their diet as a function of their genetic aptitude to produce milk at different casein levels and whether this selection can influence milk production or composition. Two groups of 8 animals, homozygous for strong (AA) or weak (FF) alleles were housed in individual pens. Using a manger subdivided into five separate containers, the goats were offered daily for 3 weeks: 1·5 kg of alfalfa pelleted hay, 0·7 kg of whole barley, 0·7 kg of whole maize, 0·7 kg of whole faba bean and 0·7 kg of pelleted sunflower cake. Total dry matter intake was similar between groups and resulted in nutrient inputs much higher than requirements. On average, goats selected 86% of maize plus barley and only 46% of faba bean plus sunflower. Indeed, AA goats selected less faba bean compared with FF goats (37·2 v. 56·7% of the available amount; P=0·01); during week 2 and week 3 they significantly increased maize selection (respectively for week 2 and week 3: 94·9 and 99·1% v. 85·3 and 87·3%) thus increasing the ratio between the high-energy feeds and the high-protein feeds (2·41 v. 1·81, P=0·023). As for true protein, the high soluble fraction (B1) and the indigestible fraction (C) were lower in the diet selected by AA goats (respectively in AA and FF groups: B1, 7·85 v. 9·23% CP, P<0·01; C, 6·07 v. 6·30% CP, P<0·001); these diet characteristics can be associated with lower losses of protein. Milk production, being similar in AA and FF groups when goats were fed with a mixed diet, significantly increased in AA group, when free-choice feeding was given (mean productions: 1198 v. 800 g/d, P<0·01). Casein content was higher in AA group than in FF group (2·70 v. 2·40%, P<0·01) whereas milk urea was higher in FF group (59·7 v. 48·8 mg/dl, P<0·01). In conclusion, when the animals were free to select their diet, their higher genetic aptitude to produce casein seemed to adjust their energy and protein dietary input in qualitative terms, thus leading to an increase in milk production and a decrease in milk urea. These results seem to demonstrate that interactions probably occurred between genetic polymorphism at the αs1-casein locus, diet selection and the efficiency of nutrient transformation into milk.
We evaluated the effect of grazing time of day on goat milk chemical composition, renneting properties and milk fatty acid profile in a Mediterranean grazing system. Sixteen lactating Girgentana goats were divided into two experimental groups and housed in individual pens, where they received 500 g/d of barley grain. For 5 weeks the two groups were left to graze in two fenced plots on a ryegrass sward as follows: morning group (AM), from 9·00 to 13·00; afternoon group (PM), from 12·00 to 16·00. In selected herbage, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) increased in the afternoon (204 v. 174 g/kg dry matter, DM; P=0·01), whereas crude protein (CP) and linolenic acid decreased (respectively, 16·7 v. 19·8% DM; P<0·01 and 26·8 v. 30·4 g/kg DM; P<0·01). Pasture dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher in the afternoon (0·82 v. 0·75 kg/d; P=0·026). Fat corrected milk production (FCM), milk fat and lactose content were not affected by treatment, whereas protein and titrable acidity (°SH) increased in the PM group (respectively 3·56 v. 3·42%; P=0·01; 3·55 v. 3·22°SH/50 ml; P=0·01). In contrast, milk urea content was significantly higher in the AM group (381 v. 358 mg/l; P=0·037). The results seem to indicate that an improvement in ruminal efficiency might be obtained by shifting grazing time from morning to afternoon, as a consequence of a more balanced ratio between nitrogenous compounds and sugars. Indeed, the higher linolenic acid and the lower conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (respectively 1·02 v. 0·90, P=0·037; 0·71 v. 0·81% of total fatty acids, P=0·022) in the milk of goats grazing in the afternoon seem to indicate a reduced biohydrogenation activity in the PM group.
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