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Before-after prospective surveillance study to assess the efficacy of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional infection control program to reduce the rate of occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of INICC member hospitals from 15 cities in the following 10 developing countries: Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Tunisia, and Turkey.
VAP rates were determined during a first period of active surveillance without the implementation of the multidimensional approach (phase 1) to be then compared with VAP rates after implementation of the INICC multidimensional infection control program (phase 2), which included the following practices: a bundle of infection control interventions, education, outcome surveillance, process surveillance, feedback on VAP rates, and performance feedback on infection control practices. This study was conducted by infection control professionals who applied National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions for healthcare-associated infections and INICC surveillance methodology.
During phase 1, we recorded 3,153 mechanical ventilation (MV)–days, and during phase 2, after the implementation of the bundle of interventions, we recorded 15,981 MV-days. The VAP rate was 17.8 cases per 1,000 MV-days during phase 1 and 12.0 cases per 1,000 MV-days during phase 2 (relative risk, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.91]; P = .001 ), indicating a 33% reduction in VAP rate.
Our results demonstrate that an implementation of the INICC multidimensional infection control program was associated with a significant reduction in VAP rate in NICUs in developing countries.
The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) was established in 15 developing countries to reduce infection rates in resource-limited hospitals by focusing on education and feedback of outcome surveillance (infection rates) and process surveillance (adherence to infection control measures). We report a time-sequence analysis of the effectiveness of this approach in reducing rates of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and associated deaths in 86 intensive care units with a minimum of 6-month INICC membership.
Pooled CLABSI rates during the first 3 months (baseline) were compared with rates at 6-month intervals during the first 24 months in 53,719 patients (190,905 central line–days). Process surveillance results at baseline were compared with intervention period data.
During the first 6 months, CLABSI incidence decreased by 33% (from 14.5 to 9.7 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line–days). Over the first 24 months there was a cumulative reduction from baseline of 54% (from 16.0 to 7.4 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line–days; relative risk, 0.46 [95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.63]; P <.001). The number of deaths in patients with CLABSI decreased by 58%. During the intervention period, hand hygiene adherence improved from 50% to 60% (P<.001); the percentage of intensive care units that used maximal sterile barriers at insertion increased from 45% to 85% (P < .001), that adopted Chlorhexidine for antisepsis increased from 7% to 27% (P = .018), and that sought to remove unneeded catheters increased from 37% to 83% (P = .004); and the duration of central line placement decreased from 4.1 to 3.5 days (P < .001).
Education, performance feedback, and outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI rates significantly improved infection control adherence, reducing the CLABSI incidence by 54% and the number of CLABSI-associated deaths by 58% in INICC hospitals during the first 2 years.
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