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A competitive advantage in health care institutions can be cultivated by marketing activities and value creation for patients with chronic diseases in primary health care. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major challenge in primary health care, as managing risk factors and managing patient knowledge can help to prevent a number of major of complications. This study reveals the expectations and attitudes of patients with T2DM regarding marketing mix elements in the management of their condition.
Aim of the study:
To explore the perspectives of patients with T2DM on marketing mix elements in the primary health care institutions of Lithuania.
Materials and methods:
The design of the national study was based on a survey of patients with T2DM that was conducted after consultation with a family physician in primary health care institutions in Lithuania. The survey was conducted from October 2017 to January 2018, and involved 510 patients with T2DM. Data analysis included factor analysis and linear logistic regression. A hypothetical model was built, defining the relationships between marketing mix elements and both perceived value (emotional, functional, and social) and satisfaction with primary health care services.
The marketing mix element of ‘Service’ is statistically significantly dependent on the gender of the respondents, and is expressed more frequently by women (rcr = 0.118, P = 0.007). The occupation of respondents with T2DM (rcr = 0.151, P = 0.009) and affiliation to primary health care institution (rcr = 0.091, P = 0.040) statistically positively affect the marketing mix element of ‘Price’. The marketing mix elements of ‘Promotion’ and ‘People’ do not statistically significantly depend on the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. Only a weak correlation between the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the marketing element of ‘Place’ was found. The ‘Process’ element is statistically significantly more relevant to patients with an average monthly income of €350 (rcr = 0.104, P = 0.019). The element of ‘Physical evidence’ is more statistically significantly related to respondents with an average monthly income of €350 (rcr = 0.092, P = 0.038).
Marketing mix analysis provides information about patients’ expectations of primary health care services and identifies areas of improvement for the health services provided by primary health care institutions. The competitiveness of primary health care services is strengthened by enhancing value for patients, by using elements of the health care marketing, and by increasing patient satisfaction.
To explore the relationships between social, emotional, and functional values, and satisfaction of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an emphasis on Lithuanian primary health care services providers.
Academics and practitioners are encouraging more research on service value conceptually and empirically. Primary health care settings (PHCS) use modern management of value creation for patients with chronic diseases to increase the satisfaction of patients. Satisfaction of patients is the most important factor of competitive advantage for the PHCS. In this study, perceived value concept is dealt with in a multidimensional way. The fact that the perceived value in health sector has not previously been examined as multidimentionally has increased the importance of this research.
The study strategy is based on focus group discussions of executives and survey of patients with T2DM in the primary health care sector. The target of focus group discussions is to gain knowledge about factors developing the competitive advantage of PHCS. The survey of patients with T2DM is the background to test the conceptual model of perceived value importance on satisfaction. The study uses coefficients of correlation, exploratory factor analysis, and linear regression.
The results of focus groups revealed the factors of competitive advantage related to perspectives of health policy, organization, human resources, and patients. The results of the survey established statistically significant links between social value and satisfaction, and functional value and satisfaction. Emotional value decreased satisfaction of patients with T2DM.
Suicide has been decreasing over the past decade. However, we do not know whether socioeconomic inequality in suicide has been decreasing as well.
We assessed recent trends in socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in 15 European populations.
The DEMETRIQ study collected and harmonised register-based data on suicide mortality follow-up of population censuses, from 1991 and 2001, in European populations aged 35–79. Absolute and relative inequalities of suicide according to education were computed on more than 300 million person-years.
In the 1990s, people in the lowest educational group had 1.82 times more suicides than those in the highest group. In the 2000s, this ratio increased to 2.12. Among men, absolute and relative inequalities were substantial in both periods and generally did not decrease over time, whereas among women inequalities were absent in the first period and emerged in the second.
The World Health Organization (WHO) plan for ‘Fair opportunity of mental wellbeing’ is not likely to be met.
Declaration of interest
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