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At present, the social economy is in a period of fast-paced change in China, with various modes of production and life evolving and emerging. The transfer of agricultural land is the transformation of the utilization mode of the main factors of production in rural areas, and it is one of the contents of the social and economic reform in rural areas. In 2021, the area of rural land transfer is up to 3.7×1011 m2 in China, an increase of 4.3% over the previous year. 1,239 counties (cities, districts) and 18,731 townships have established agricultural land management rights transfer centers to provide services such as policy consultation, information release, and contract signing for both sides of the transfer. Farmers are the subjects of agricultural land management and transfer. Their behaviors are affected by their psychology to some extent. In the long-term, dynamic, and gradual process of agricultural land transfer, it is particularly important to respect farmers’ wishes, pay attention to farmers’ psychology, and guide farmers’ behavior. However, only a few written contracts were signed. Most are verbal agreements of spontaneous or collective land transfers. The verbal agreements auto-execute to some extent within certain limits. The goals of farmers in farmland transfer are diversified, and their cognition, willingness and psychological identity affect the performance of the contract and the effect of transfer.
Subjects and Methods
The psychological contract of agricultural land transfer can be defined as the transferor and transferee of agricultural land transfer. Through a certain psychological suggestion mode, through the subjective cognition and understanding of the rights and obligations of both parties, rather than the direct explicit expression, a contract relationship of rights and obligations is formed. The party awarding contract and the contractor are the subjects of agricultural land transfer. Therefore, the subjects of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer include farmers, village collectives and enterprises, all of whom have equal status, forming their own psychological contracts. The forming process of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer includes four steps. Step one is cognition and judgment. Both parties to the transfer are aware of and judge their own rights and obligations based on external environmental information and their own circumstances. Step two is psychological expectations. Before information is transmitted, both sides of the transmission transform cognition and judgment into psychological expectations. The third step is to convey psychological expectations. Both sides of transfer transmit psychological expectations by means of direct patterns, such as oral form and written form, and implicit ways, such as perception and comprehension. Step four is the formation of the psychological contract. Both sides of transfer reciprocally admit information of psychological expectations transmitted in implicit ways, forming psychological contracts. If they can’t come to an agreement on psychological contracts, a new four-step cycle is entered.
The forming of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer is shown in Figure 1. First, farmers’ behavior background, such as the experiences of land lease and transfer, the targets of land transfer and education, has an effect on the building of psychological contracts and its type. On the one hand, the farmers who have the experience of land transfer and get high benefits from it are much more motivated than those who don’t have that experience or ever have dissension while transferring. On the other hand, the targets of transfer and the education level of farmers affect the type of psychological contracts. Second, Farmers’ subjective norms, mainly reflected in the difference in folk customs, will form various communication modes and take different measures to deal with breaching contracts while transferring. Third, farmers’ behavior cognition reflects in their comprehension of the capability of executing contracts, including bargaining power, decision-making level and managing modes of the rent. The ability of behavior cognition and control of farmers has a positive influence on their behavior intention and happened.
According to the above results, in order to promote the reposeful transfer and orderly development of agricultural land, the following suggestions are proposed: The first is to improve the agricultural land transfer policy system, establish and improve the institutional environment for agricultural land transfer, create conditions for the establishment of farmers’ behavioral psychological contracts in the process of agricultural land transfers, and guide farmers to establish relationship psychological contracts. The second is to improve the market system, properly cultivate and develop agricultural land transfer intermediaries, reduce transaction costs, and reduce the probability of farmers’ psychological contracts being broken. The third is to guide farmers to establish a positive agricultural land transfer psychology based on their resource endowments such as labor force quality and cultural quality, and encourage farmers to make agricultural land transfer decisions such as subcontracting, leasing, reselling, and interchanging.Figure 1.
Psychological contracts of agricultural land transfer forming
Isolated gametes can be used to investigate fertilization mechanisms, and probe distant hybridization between different species. Pollen grains of wheat and Setaria viridis are tricellular, containing sperm cells at anthesis. Sperm from these plants were isolated by breaking open pollen grains in a osmotic solution. Wheat ovules were digested in an enzyme solution for 20 min, and then transferred to an isolation solution without enzymes to separate egg cells from ovules. The fusion of wheat egg cells with wheat and S. viridis sperm was conducted using an electro-fusion apparatus. Under suitable osmotic pressure (10% mannitol), calcium concentration of 0.001% (CaCl2·2H2O), and a 30–35 V alternating electric field for 15 s, egg cells and sperm adhered to each other and became arranged in a line. Electroporation of the plasma membrane of egg cells and sperm using a 300–500 V direct-current electric field (45 µs amplitude pulse) caused them to fuse.
Although parasites and microbial pathogens are both detrimental to insects, little information is currently available on the mechanism involved in how parasitized hosts balance their immune responses to defend against microbial infections. We addressed this in the present study by comparing the immune response between unparasitized and parasitized pupae of the chrysomelid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), to Escherichia coli invasion. In an in vivo survival assay, a markedly reduced number of E. coli colony-forming units per microliter was detected in parasitized pupae at 12 and 24 h post-parasitism, together with decreased phagocytosis and enhanced bactericidal activity at 12 h post-parasitism. The effects that parasitism had on the mRNA expression level of selected antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of O. nipae pupae showed that nearly all transcripts of AMPs examined were highly upregulated during the early and late parasitism stages except defensin 2B, whose mRNA expression level was downregulated at 24 h post-parasitism. Further elucidation on the main maternal fluids responsible for alteration of the primary immune response against E. coli showed that ovarian fluid increased phagocytosis at 48 h post-injection. These results indicated that the enhanced degradation of E. coli in parasitized pupae resulted mainly from the elevated bactericidal activity without observing the increased transcripts of target AMPs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune responses of a parasitized host to bacterial infections.
Extended hydrodynamic models for carrier transport are derived from the semiconductor Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation of the scattering term, by using the globally hyperbolic moment method and the moment-dependent relaxation time. Incorporating the microscopic relaxation time and the applied voltage bias, a formula is proposed to determine the relaxation time for each moment equation, which sets different relaxation rates for different moments such that higher moments damp faster. The resulting models would give more satisfactory results of macroscopic quantities of interest with a high-order convergence to those of the underlying Boltzmann equation as the involved moments increase, in comparison to the corresponding moment models using a single relaxation time. In order to simulate the steady states efficiently, a multigrid solver is developed for the derived moment models. Numerical simulations of an n+-n-n+ silicon diode are carried out to demonstrate the validation of the presented moment models, and the robustness and efficiency of the designed multigrid solver.
Purpose: To further understand genetic factors that contribute to congenital cataracts, we sought to identify early post-twinning mutational and epigenetic events that may account for the discordant phenotypes of a twin pair. Methods: A patient with a congenital cataract and her twin sister were assessed for genetic factors that might contribute to their discordant phenotypes by mutation screening of 11 candidate genes (CRYGC, CRYGD, CRYAA, CRYAB, CRYBA1, CRYBB1, CRYBB2, MIP, HSF4, GJA3, and GJA8), exome analysis followed by Sanger sequencing of 10 additional candidate genes (PLEKHO2, FRYL, RBP3, P2RX2, GSR, TRAM1, VEGFA, NARS2, CADPS, and TEKT4), and promoter methylation analysis of five representative genes (TRAM1, CRYAA, HSF4, VEGFA, GJA3, DCT) plus one additional candidate gene (FTL). Results: Mutation screening revealed no gene mutation differences between the patient and her twin sister for the 11 candidate genes. Exome sequencing analysis revealed variations between the twins in 442 genes, 10 of which are expressed in the eye. However, these differential variants could not be confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, epigenetic discordance was not detected in the twin pair. Conclusions: The genomic DNA mutational and epigenetic events assessed in this study could not explain the discordance in the development of phenotypic differences between the twin pair, suggesting the possible involvement of somatic mutations or environmental factors. Identification of possible causes requires further research.
Long-term fertilization experiment has been conducted since 1981 to study the effect of soil management practices on soil fertility, soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration, soil culturable microbe counts and crop yields at the Nanhu Experimental Station in the Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (situated in the middle reach of the Yangtze River and the rice–wheat cropping system). The experiment was designed with the following eight treatments: (1) unfertilized treatment: Control; (2) inorganic nitrogen fertilizer treatment: N; (3) inorganic nitrogen plus inorganic phosphorus fertilizer treatment: NP; (4) inorganic nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus plus inorganic potassium fertilizer treatment: NPK; (5) pig dung compost (manure) treatment: M; (6) inorganic nitrogen fertilizer plus manure: NM; (7) inorganic nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus fertilizer plus manure treatment: NPM and (8) inorganic nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, inorganic potassium fertilizer plus manure treatment: NPKM. The results showed that long-term application of organic manure in combination with inorganic fertilizer significantly (p < 0.05) increased soil organic C concentrations compared with the corresponding inorganic fertilizers alone. Soil organic C contents were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in balanced application of NPK fertilizers in comparison to unbalanced application of fertilizers. After 30 years of experiment, soil organic C and total N sequestration rate averagely were 0.48 t ha−1 year−1 and 28.3 kg ha−1 year−1 in the fertilized treatments respectively; nevertheless, it were 0.27 t ha−1 year−1 and 9.7 kg ha−1 year−1 in the unfertilized treatment. Application of organic fertilizer in combination with inorganic fertilizer significantly (p < 0.05) increased culturable microbial counts compared with the corresponding inorganic fertilizers alone. The balanced application of NPK fertilizers significantly (p < 0.05) increased culturable microbial counts compared with unbalanced application of fertilizers. The average grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in organic manure combined with inorganic fertilizer treatment than in inorganic fertilizer alone and unfertilized control. Therefore, long-term application of organic manure combined with inorganic fertilizer and balanced application of NPK fertilizers could increase soil organic C and total N sequestration, culturable microbial counts and crop grain yields.
This work is concerned with the numerical simulations for two reaction-diffusion systems, i.e., the Brusselator model and the Gray-Scott model. The numerical algorithm is based upon a moving finite element method which helps to resolve large solution gradients. High quality meshes are obtained for both the spot replication and the moving wave along boundaries by using proper monitor functions. Unlike , this work finds out the importance of the boundary grid redistribution which is particularly important for a class of problems for the Brusselator model. Several ways for verifying the quality of the numerical solutions are also proposed, which may be of important use for comparisons.
The synthesis and characterization of a 1,1′-binaphthyl based main chain chiral conjugated polymer, R-9, is described. The polymer is prepared from the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling of an optically active binaphthyl molecule, (R)-2,2′-dihexyloxy-1,1′-binaphthyl-6,6′- diboronic acid, R-4 with 1,4-bis(p-bromostyryl)benzene (E:Z = 1:1.2), 8. The Suzuki coupling of 8 with 6-neopentyloxynaphthyl-2-boronic acid, 1 1, leads to the formation of a conjugated molecule 10. The structure of this molecule represents the repeat unit of R-9. The electronic absorption spectrum of 10 demonstrates that the degree of conjugation in the chiral conjugated polymer is almost the same as that of its repeat unit.
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