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We present the pulse arrival times and high-precision dispersion measure estimates for 14 millisecond pulsars observed simultaneously in the 300
500 MHz and 1260
1460 MHz frequency bands using the upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The data spans over a baseline of 3.5 years (2018-2021), and is the first official data release made available by the Indian Pulsar Timing Array collaboration. This data release presents a unique opportunity for investigating the interstellar medium effects at low radio frequencies and their impact on the timing precision of pulsar timing array experiments. In addition to the dispersion measure time series and pulse arrival times obtained using both narrowband and wideband timing techniques, we also present the dispersion measure structure function analysis for selected pulsars. Our ongoing investigations regarding the frequency dependence of dispersion measures have been discussed. Based on the preliminary analysis for five millisecond pulsars, we do not find any conclusive evidence of chromaticity in dispersion measures. Data from regular simultaneous two-frequency observations are presented for the first time in this work. This distinctive feature leads us to the highest precision dispersion measure estimates obtained so far for a subset of our sample. Simultaneous multi-band upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations in 300
500 MHz and 1260
1460 MHz are crucial for high-precision dispersion measure estimation and for the prospect of expanding the overall frequency coverage upon the combination of data from the various Pulsar Timing Array consortia in the near future. Parts of the data presented in this work are expected to be incorporated into the upcoming third data release of the International Pulsar Timing Array.
In this paper, a novel statistical application of large deviation principle (LDP) to the robot trajectory tracking problem is presented. The exit probability of the trajectory from stability zone is evaluated, in the presence of small-amplitude Gaussian and Poisson noise. Afterward, the limit of the partition function for the average tracking error energy is derived by solving a fourth-order system of Euler–Lagrange equations. Stability and computational complexity of the proposed approach is investigated to show the superiority over the Lyapunov method. Finally, the proposed algorithm is validated by Monte Carlo simulations and on the commercially available Omni bundleTM robot.
This paper aims at estimating the tremor torque using extended Kalman filter (EKF) applied to a two-link 3-DOF robot with nonlinear dynamics modelled using Lie-group and Lie-algebra theory. Later, it is generalised to d number of links with (d + 1) -DOF. The configuration of each link at any time is described by its rotation relative to the preceding link. Using this formulation, an elegant formula for the kinetic energy of the (d + 1) -DOF system is obtained as a quadratic form in the angular velocities with coefficients being highly nonlinear trigonometric functions of the angles. Properties of the Lie algebra generators and the Lie adjoint map are used to arrive at this expression. Further, the gravitational potential energy and the torque potential energy are expressed as nonlinear trigonometrical functions of the angles using properties of the SO(3) group. The input torque comprises a nonrandom intentional torque component and a highly nonlinear tremor torque component. The tremor torque is modelled as a stochastic differential equation (sde) satisfying Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) process with diffusion and damping coefficients. Further, the tremor is treated as the disturbance. The Euler–Lagrange equations for the angles are derived. These form a system of sdes, and the EKF is used to get a more accurate disturbance estimate than that provided by the usual disturbance observer. The EKF is based on noisy angle measurements and yields as a bonus the angle and angular velocity estimates on a real-time basis. The parameters in the OU process model of the tremor torque, and parameters of the Fourier components of the intentional torque have also been estimated.
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