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Typical electron transport (2,2′,2″-(1,3,5-benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi)) and injection (Cs2CO3) materials are successfully replaced by zirconium tetrakis(8-hydroxyquinolinolate) (Zrq4) and lithium 2-((o-tolylimino)methyl)-phenolate (EI-111) in simplified OLED (organic light-emitting diodes) processed by organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD). The performance of combining Zrq4 and EI-111 is analyzed in unipolar devices and compared to devices with configurations of Zrq4/Cs2CO3, TPBi/EI-111 and TPBi/Cs2CO3. Current density-voltage (J-V) measurements are performed and correlated to different carrier injection and transport properties. The investigated material combinations are implemented in the simplified OLED structures and compared to each other. To account for the high HOMO level of Zrq4, 5 nm of TPBi are added to confine holes and excitons in the emissive layer (EML) and to improve device performance. After tailoring the organic stack for OLED with Zrq4, a remarkable boost in device efficiency is observed. The luminous efficacy increased from 3.0 to 21.9 lm/W and the EQE from 2.1 to 11.0 % for a device with Zrq4/EI-111. Furthermore, OLED having Zrq4/Cs2CO3 show an even greater enhancement to 26.3 lm/W and 11.7 %.
ZnO was electrochemically grown on ITO coated polyethylene (PET) substrate. By sandwiching the electrolyte (sodium para-toluene sulfonate) with so grown ZnO/ITO/PET substrate with another ITO/Plastic substrate, a transparent ZnO based flexible PV cells was fabricated. The efficiency of 0.3% was obtained when shined under UV light. It was concluded that there will be a significant trade-off between with its performance although the optical transparency is very attractive.
ZnO nanorods were grown homogenously and vertically on ITO using electrochemical techniques. The physical properties of the nanorods were characterized using SEM and optical absorption. The electrical conductivity, deduced using STM at different tip heights, and was found to be 20 Ω-cm with a carrier concentration of 3x1015 cm-3.The results show that electrochemically grown ZnO nanorods have electrical properties suitable for use in electronic devices such as solar cells and transistors. A-Si:H p-i-n solar cells were then deposited after the fabrication on the ZnO on ITO-coated substrates. The results show that the textured solar cell performance was 30% higher than the planar solar cell.
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