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The Dawn mission revealed that Ceres’ interior underwent partial differentiation and aqueous alteration, probably in its early history. The dwarf planet also preserved brines until present, at least on a regional scale. This chapter addresses the various processes involved in shaping Ceres’ interior based on the Dawn observations and knowledge gained from the analysis of carbonaceous chondrites and from observations of other icy worlds. The Dawn results highlight the importance of better understanding the extent of the feedback between geophysical and chemical evolution in ice-rich bodies. In particular, brines produced as a consequence of aqueous alteration can drive geological activity and the transfer of material from the deep interior to the surface. The four main evolution pathways proposed to explain Ceres’ current state are assessed against observational constraints. Most of these models offer explanations for the presence of deep brines below Ceres’ crust. However, uncertainties in the density of Ceres’ mantle and the extent of the brine reservoir prevent converging on the most likely evolutionary path. Altogether, the knowledge gained at Ceres can be applied to other icy worlds, and in particular to dwarf planets and icy moons with limited tidal heating.
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
The detection of fireballs streaks in astronomical imagery can be carried out by a variety of methods. The Desert Fireball Network uses a network of cameras to track and triangulate incoming fireballs to recover meteorites with orbits and to build a fireball orbital dataset. Fireball detection is done on-board camera, but due to the design constraints imposed by remote deployment, the cameras are limited in processing power and time. We describe the processing software used for fireball detection under these constrained circumstances. Two different approaches were compared: (1) A single-layer neural network with 10 hidden units that were trained using manually selected fireballs and (2) a more traditional computational approach based on cascading steps of increasing complexity, whereby computationally simple filters are used to discard uninteresting portions of the images, allowing for more computationally expensive analysis of the remainder. Both approaches allowed a full night’s worth of data (over a thousand 36-megapixel images) to be processed each day using a low-power single-board computer. We distinguish between large (likely meteorite-dropping) fireballs and smaller fainter ones (typical ‘shooting stars’). Traditional processing and neural network algorithms both performed well on large fireballs within an approximately 30 000-image dataset, with a true positive detection rate of 96% and 100%, respectively, but the neural network was significantly more successful at smaller fireballs, with rates of 67% and 82%, respectively. However, this improved success came at a cost of significantly more false positives for the neural network results, and additionally the neural network does not produce precise fireball coordinates within an image (as it classifies). Simple consideration of the network geometry indicates that overall detection rate for triangulated large fireballs is calculated to be better than 99.7% and 99.9%, by ensuring that there are multiple double-station opportunities to detect any one fireball. As such, both algorithms are considered sufficient for meteor-dropping fireball event detection, with some consideration of the acceptable number of false positives compared to sensitivity.
The flux of meteorites to the Earth over the last 50,000 yr has remained approximately constant. Most meteorites that fall in temperate or tropical areas are destroyed on a time scale which is short compared to the rate of infall; however, in arid regions (both “hot” deserts and the “cold” desert of Antarctica) weathering is slower and accumulations of meteorites may occur. The initial composition for many meteorite groups is well known from modern falls, and terrestrial ages may be established from analyses of the abundance of cosmogenic radionuclides, providing an absolute chronology for recording terrestrial processes. As samples are falling constantly, and are distributed approximately evenly over the Earth, meteorites may thus be thought of as an appropriate “standard sample” for studying aspects of the terrestrial surface environment. Studies involving 14C and 36Cl terrestrial ages of meteorites, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (to quantify the degree of oxidation in samples), stable isotopes, and determination of halogen abundances are yielding information on the terrestrial history of meteorites: (i) terrestrial age and oxidation-frequency distributions for populations of samples allow the ages of surfaces to be estimated; (ii) differences in the weathering rate of samples between sites allows constraints to be imposed on the effect of climate on rock weathering rates; (iii) carbon isotopic compositions of generations of carbonate growth within meteorites allows, in some cases, temperatures of formation of carbonates to be estimated; (iv) structure in the oxidation–terrestrial age distribution for meteorites from some arid accumulation sites (specifically, the Nullarbor of Australia) appears to be linked to previous humid/arid cycles; (v) meteorite accumulations in Antarctica have been used to constrain aspects of the Quaternary evolution of the ice sheet, and terrestrial age and oxidation data have been used to constrain ice flow.
Background: Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) seeks to identify core cognitive-behavioural processes hypothesized to be important across a range of disorders and to develop a treatment that targets these. This contrasts with standard CBT approaches that are disorder-specific. Proponents of transdiagnostic CBT suggest that it may offer advantages over disorder-specific CBT, but little is known about the effectiveness of this approach. Aims: The review aimed to summarize trial-based clinical and cost-effectiveness data on transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety and depression. Method: A systematic review of electronic databases, including peer-reviewed and grey literature sources, was conducted (n = 1167 unique citations). Results: Eight trials were eligible for inclusion in the review. There was evidence of an effect for transdiagnostic CBT when compared to a control condition. There were no differences between transdiagnostic CBT and active treatments in two studies. We found no evidence of cost-effectiveness data. Conclusions: Quality assessment of the primary studies indicated a number of methodological concerns that may serve to inflate the observed effects of transdiagnostic approaches. Although there are positive signs of the value of transdiagnostic CBT, there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend its use in place of disorder-specific CBT.
In this paper, we review the production of radiocarbon and other radionuclides in extraterrestrial materials. This radioactivity can be produced by the effects of solar and galactic cosmic rays on solid material in space. In addition, direct implantation at the lunar surface of 14C and other radionuclides can occur. The level of 14C and other radionuclides in a meteorite can be used to determine its residence time on the Earth's surface, or “terrestrial age”. 14C provides the best tool for estimating terrestrial ages of meteorites collected in desert environments. Age control allows us to understand the time constraints on processes by which meteorites are weathered, as well as mean storage times. Third, we discuss the use of the difference in 14C/12C ratio of organic material and carbonates produced on other planetary objects and terrestrial material. These differences can be used to assess the importance of distinguishing primary material formed on the parent body from secondary alteration of meteoritic material after it lands on the earth.
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