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In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a workshop on 13 May 2009 to discuss recently completed research on diet and immune function. The objective of the workshop was to review this research and to establish priorities for future research. Several of the trials presented at the workshop showed some effect of nutritional interventions (e.g. vitamin D, Zn, Se) on immune parameters. One trial found that increased fruit and vegetable intake may improve the antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination in older people. The workshop highlighted the need to further clarify the potential public health relevance of observed nutrition-related changes in immune function, e.g. susceptibility to infections and infectious morbidity.
Expressions are derived for transport by weak electrostatic microfluctuations driven unstable by a density gradient perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Vlasov plasma. These expressions, which are evaluated for the universal and lower-hybrid density drift instabilities, provide improved physical interpretations for various wave-particle exchange frequencies previously reported. It is demonstrated that wave-particle effects generally reduce the free energy driving these instabilities, and that some forms of steady-state distribution functions are inappropriate for nonlinear theory.
This paper considers electrostatic waves in a Vlasov plasma of unmagnetized ions and magnetized, Maxwellian electrons. The linear dispersion relation is derived for waves in a perpendicular shock such that the most important sources of instability are the E × B and ∇B electron drifts. For the case of cold ions, propagation perpendicular to the applied magnetic field, and the E × B drift alone, a numerical analysis of frequency vs. wave-number is presented. The effects of the ∇B drift are also considered, and it is shown that the maximum growth rate can be larger than the maximum growth rate for the zero magnetic field ion acoustic instabifity under comparable conditions.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating folate and colo-rectal cancer risk. The workshop aimed to examine current research and establish research priorities. The timing of folate exposure with respect to carcinogenesis, as well as the dose and form of folate, were considered key issues for future research. Also, the need to study further the influence of genetically defined subgroups was highlighted for future research.
The workshop was organised to discuss the validity and limitations of existing functional markers of Se status in human subjects and to identify future research priorities in this area. Studies presented as part of this workshop investigated: the bioavailability of Se from different dietary sources; potential functional markers of Se status; individual variation in response to Se; the effect of marginal Se status on immune function. The workshop highlighted the need to define the relationship between functional markers of Se status and health outcomes.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating factors affecting iron status and the bioavailability of dietary iron. Results presented at the workshop show menstrual blood loss to be the major determinant of body iron stores in premenopausal women. In the presence of abundant and varied food supplies, the health consequences of lower iron bioavailability are unclear and require further investigation.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating diet and carriers of genetic mutations associated with hereditary haemochromatosis. The workshop concluded that individuals who are heterozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene do not appear to respond abnormally to dietary Fe and therefore do not need to change their diet to prevent accumulation of body Fe.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating the effect of dietary lipids on vascular function. The workshop highlighted the need for intervention studies to be sufficiently powered for these measures and that they should be corroborated with other, more validated, risk factors for CVD. Work presented at the workshop suggested a beneficial effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA and a detrimental effect of trans fatty acids. The workshop also considered the importance of the choice of study population in dietary intervention studies and that ‘at risk’ subgroups within the general population may be more appropriate than subjects that are unrepresentatively healthy.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating emerging diet-related surrogate end points for colorectal cancer (CRC). The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. The workshop considered that the validation of current putative diet-related surrogate end points for CRC and the development of novel ones, particularly in the emerging fields of proteomics, genomics and epigenomics, should be a high priority for future research.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating folate bioavailability. The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. Discrepancies were observed in the evidence base for folate bioavailability, especially with regard to the relative bioavailability of natural folates compared with folic acid. A substantial body of evidence shows folic acid to have superior bioavailability relative to food folates; however, the exact relative bioavailability still needs to be determined, and in particular with regard to mixed diets. The bioavailability of folate in a mixed diet is probably not a weighted average of that in the various foods consumed; thus the workshop considered that assessment of folate bioavailability of whole diets should be a high priority for future research.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from plant oils (α-linolenic acid; ALA) were as beneficial to cardiovascular health as the n-3 PUFA from the marine oils, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The workshop also aimed to establish priorities for future research. Dietary intake of ALA has been associated with a beneficial effect on CHD; however, the results from studies investigating the effects of ALA supplementation on CHD risk factors have proved equivocal. The studies presented as part of the present workshop suggested little, if any, benefit of ALA, relative to linoleic acid, on risk factors for cardiovascular disease; the effects observed with fish-oil supplementation were not replicated by ALA supplementation. There is a need, therefore, to first prove the efficacy of ALA supplementation on cardiovascular disease, before further investigating effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The workshop considered that a beneficial effect of ALA on the secondary prevention of CHD still needed to be established, and there was no reason to look further at existing CHD risk factors in relation to ALA supplementation. The workshop also highlighted the possibility of feeding livestock ALA-rich oils to provide a means of increasing the dietary intake in human consumers of EPA and DHA.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating the optimal dietary intake for n-9 cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The aim was to review the mechanisms underlying the reported beneficial effects of MUFA on CHD risk, and to establish priorities for future research. The issue of optimal MUFA intake is contingent upon optimal total fat intake; however, there is no consensus of opinion on what the optimal total fat intake should be. Thus, it was recommended that a large multi-centre study should look at the effects on CHD risk of MUFA replacement of saturated fatty acids in relation to varying total fat intakes; this study should be of sufficient size to take account of genetic variation, sex, physical activity and stage of life factors, as well as being of sufficient duration to account for adaptation to diets. Recommendations for studies investigating the mechanistic effects of MUFA were also made. Methods of manipulating the food chain to increase MUFA at the expense of saturated fatty acids were also discussed.
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