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Rhetoric aimed to teach pupils how to argue persuasively and how to analyse other people’s speeches and writing in order to understand what they were saying, to reply to them effectively, and, at times, to learn from their use of language.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
The onset of transition in the leading-edge region of a swept blunt body depends crucially on the stability characteristics of the flow. Modelling this flow configuration by swept compressible flow around a parabolic body, a global approach is taken to extract pertinent stability information via a DNS-based iterative eigenvalue solver. Global modes combining features from boundary-layer and acoustic instabilities are presented. A parameter study, varying the spanwise disturbance wavenumber and the sweep Reynolds number, showed the existence of unstable boundary-layer and acoustic modes. The corresponding neutral curve displays two overlapping regions of exponential growth and two critical Reynolds numbers, one for boundary-layer instabilities and one for acoustic instabilities. The employed global approach establishes a first neutral curve, delineating stable from unstable parameter configurations, for the complex flow about a swept parabolic body with corresponding implications for swept leading-edge flow.
The global temporal stability of three-dimensional compressible flow about a yawed parabolic body of infinite span is investigated using an iterative eigenvalue technique in combination with direct numerical simulations. The computed global spectrum provides a comprehensive picture of the temporal perturbation dynamics of the flow, and a wide and rich variety of modes has been uncovered for the investigated parameter choices: stable and unstable boundary-layer modes, different types of stable and unstable acoustic modes, and stable wavepacket modes have been found. A parameter study varying the spanwise perturbation wavenumber and the sweep Reynolds number reproduced a preferred spanwise length scale and a critical Reynolds number for a boundary-layer or acoustic instability. Convex leading-edge curvature has been found to have a strongly stabilizing effect on boundary-layer modes but only a weakly stabilizing effect on acoustic modes. Furthermore, for certain parameter choices, the acoustic modes have been found to dominate the boundary-layer modes.
The renaissance of classical rhetoric can be characterized in three words: recovery, addition, and change. First it was necessary to copy and circulate the texts (after 1460 by printing them). The order in which the texts were recovered and the traditions of teaching established around the earliest known texts constrained the ways in which rhetoric could be thought about. Then rhetorical doctrine had to be adapted to changed social circumstances both by the way in which selected classical texts were grouped into syllabi and interpreted, and through the composition, especially in northern Europe, of new rhetoric textbooks. For most medieval and renaissance teachers rhetoric was about writing rather than speaking and the three classical genres, with their built-in assumptions about audience and context, did not really suit the newly important occasions of letter-writing and preaching. Some of the ways in which renaissance authors developed classical rhetoric resemble the approaches and techniques of classical adapters, though sometimes extending the approach to the point where the product becomes rather different. Some of what looks mechanical in renaissance rhetoric will generate writing which is surprisingly playful and creative.
The rhetorical legacy of the ancient world has proved particularly imposing. In antiquity Quintilian’s Institutes selected and organized the ideas of Greek and earlier Roman rhetoricians as a sort of classic canon. Even today the fourth edition of Edward Cobbett’s successful university textbook Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student assumes that the precepts of classical rhetoric (suitably selected, packaged, and adapted) can still teach the principles of good writing. The post-antique success of classical rhetoric is owed partly to the weight of what survives, partly to the perceived importance of instruction in the use of language (paired with the conceptual difficulty of making a new start on it), and partly to the circumstances in which learning and education were reborn.
The global linear stability of a three-dimensional compressible flow around a yawed parabolic body of infinite span is investigated using an iterative eigenvalue method in conjunction with direct numerical simulations. The computed global spectrum shows an unstable branch consisting of three-dimensional boundary layer modes whose amplitude distributions exhibit typical characteristics of both attachment-line and crossflow modes. In particular, global eigenfunctions with smaller phase velocities display a more pronounced structure near the stagnation line, reminiscent of attachment-line modes while still featuring strong crossflow vortices further downstream. This analysis establishes a link between the two prevailing instability mechanisms on a swept parabolic body which, so far, have only been studied separately and locally. A parameter study shows maximum modal growth for a spanwise wavenumber of β = 0.213, suggesting a preferred disturbance length scale in the sweep direction.
Sixteenth-century England's two universities were of crucial importance in national life. One reason for this was the relatively high age-participation rate. By the last decades of the sixteenth century about 700 pupils annually (or just over one per cent of the male cohort) entered Oxford. They were drawn from the same social groups as those who attended grammar school: sons of prosperous husbandmen and yeomen, burgesses from the towns, country gentry, professional men and the lower ranks of the titled. At Oxford and Cambridge the future élite of the country were educated and became acquainted. University graduates went on to become priests, country gentlemen, school teachers, academics, royal servants, doctors, lawyers and tradesmen, as McConica's study of the records of Corpus Christi College, Oxford (which may not have been representative) indicates. The majority of the writers whose works are discussed in the later chapters of this book were members of the minority of the population who attended Oxford or Cambridge.
The Queen and her councillors took a personal interest in university affairs. Three times in her reign Elizabeth made a formal visitation of one of her universities. Each visitation lasted almost a week and necessitated the transfer of the machinery of government and the highest officers of state to Oxford or Cambridge. Elizabeth and her courtiers took care to be well-informed about what was going on in the universities. This was a consequence of the prestige of learning. Humanist theorists and their admirers who founded schools required educated school-teachers.
In 1605 Francis Bacon identified an excessive concern with words as one of the enemies of learning. In Bacon's reconstruction, Martin Luther, finding that no theologians in his own time would support his reforms, was forced to look to ancient authors for assistance.
This by consequence did draw on a necessity of a more exquisite travail in the languages original, wherein those writers did write, for the better understanding of those authors and the better advantage of pressing and applying their words. And thereof grew again great delight in their manner of style and phrase and an admiration of that kind of writing.
The need to consult original texts led to investigations of language and delight in ancient expression. This enthusiasm for pure Latin was increased by hatred of the scholastics and their technical neologisms, and by the need to preach effectively to ordinary people.
So that these four causes concurring, the admiration of ancient authors, the hate of the schoolmen, the exact study of languages, and the efficacy of preaching, did bring in an affectionate study of eloquence and copie of speech, which then began to flourish. This grew speedily to an excess; for men began to hunt more after words than matter; and more after the choiceness of the phrase, and the round and clean composition of the sentence, and the sweet falling of the clauses, and the varying and illustration of their works with tropes and figures than after the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention or depth of judgement.
Most Elizabethans had their strongest and most frequent contact with writing in the form of personal notes and memoranda, letters and legal documents. The composition of many of these documents involved questions of organisation and self-presentation, also sometimes of style, which registered rhetorical competences. We have seen that grammar school education taught pupils to collect sentences and examples in notebooks. Puritans encouraged note-taking as a way of absorbing and reflecting on the teaching of sermons. Margaret Hoby's Diary which records her prayers and church attendance frequently refers to writing in her ‘sermon book’ notes of sermons she has heard a day or two before. An increasingly centralised and bureaucratic decision-making process demanded collection of written evidence and retention of copies of letters. The victims of religious persecution (Catholic or Protestant) wrote narratives to strengthen the courage and hatred of their co-religionists. Since the materials available are so diverse and have rarely been studied before, this chapter will concentrate on a few, possibly atypical examples. At the same time, it is these materials which bring us closest to the experiences and thought-processes of individual Elizabethans.
My study of particular notebooks, letters and narratives will illustrate the impact of the rhetorical skills developed in the grammar school. Moral sentences, arguments, comparisons and political axioms found in books and sermons were collected in notebooks and reused in letters. As well as collecting fragments from texts, Elizabethans took notes of the overall structure of sermons and texts.
Parliament was the highest public arena of debate in Elizabethan England. In parliament gentlemen from the shires could watch the greatest officials of state explain their policies and legislative projects, sometimes in the face of critical arguments and counter-proposals. Thanks to the enthusiasm of seventeenth-century antiquarians quite substantial records of Elizabethan parliamentary speeches and debates survive, now collected and edited in three handsome volumes by T. E. Hartley. Parliamentary oratory enables us to examine the impact of humanist rhetorical training in practical life. At the same time rhetorical theory can help us understand the effect of individual speeches and the broader import of parliamentary discourse.
Many of the formal features of parliamentary speeches can be connected with rhetorical training. The format of long parliamentary speeches reflects a compromise between rhetorical teaching about introductions and structures derived from dialectic and the practice of disputation. Short debating speeches take their form entirely from dialectic and resemble interventions in university disputations. While the restrained style predominates in both kinds of speech, all the speakers employ amplification to mark important passages and to drive home arguments. Some speakers, especially later in the reign, cultivate a more elaborate style throughout. History plays a crucial role in longer speeches, with government speakers elaborating the contrast between Elizabeth's government and her inheritance from Mary, while other orators cite biblical and classical histories. Proverbs and moral sentences are very prominent in all types of speeches. Many arguments are elaborated with commonplaces and lively descriptions.
The attraction of the idea of education was so great in sixteenth-century England that many forms of vernacular writing justified themselves primarily as vehicles for moral teaching. Sir Philip Sidney's principal claim for poetry, which he sees as embracing all forms of fiction, is that it is a more effective form of moral teaching than history or philosophy. History, conduct manuals and romances are the most often printed genres of secular writing in English in the sixteenth century. My argument in this chapter will be that these three popular genres of Tudor vernacular writing are linked and that both in subject-matter and in form they draw on the resources of rhetorical education. I shall show that histories, conduct manuals and romances share six common features: moral stories, ethical sentences, techniques of amplification, speeches and letters, debate, and shared themes. All these common features are connected with and illuminated by the procedures of Tudor rhetorical education. Most are features of grammar school teaching, which provides both material (moral sentences, stories, commonplace themes) and methods for storing, varying and presenting it. Texts in all three genres reuse material from earlier writings and in turn present subject-matter for further reuse. This means that passages from a romance may derive part of their meaning from debate with sections of a conduct book or a chronicle and vice versa.