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The Paris peace settlements following the First World War remain amongst the most controversial treaties in history. Bringing together leading international historians, this volume assesses the extent to which a new international order, combining old and new political forms, emerged from the peace negotiations and settlements after 1918. Taking account of new historiographical perspectives and methodological approaches to the study of peacemaking after the First World War, it views the peace negotiations and settlements after 1918 as a site of remarkable innovations in the practice of international politics. The contributors address how a wide range of actors set out new ways of thinking about international order, established innovative institutions, and revolutionised the conduct of international relations. They illustrate the ways in which these innovations were merged with existing practices, institutions, and concepts to shape the international order that emerged out of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an engaging and authoritative account of the essential skills required to practice child and adolescent psychiatry for all those working in children's mental health, from trainees to experienced professionals in paediatrics, psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The practical tasks of meeting the child and family, planning treatments, and working with colleagues are all covered, building on existing texts that mainly focus on diagnostic criteria, protocols, and laws. This book respects the evidence base, while also pointing out its limitations, and suggests ways in which to deal with these. Psychiatry is placed within broader frameworks including strategy, learning, management, philosophy, ethics, and interpersonal relations. With over 200 educational vignettes of the authors' vast experience in the field, the book is also highly illustrated. The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an indispensable guide to thoughtful practice in children's mental health.
People generally adhere to the norm of reciprocity during both tacit and negotiated exchange. Emotional responses generated from profitable and unprofitable exchange facilitate the formation of motives to settle scores with others. In two studies we examine how exchange incidents trigger positive and negative emotional responses, bargaining behavior, and process. In Study 1, we developed measures of emotional response toward the counterpart that can index the state of relational accounts between parties. In a complex, multi-issue negotiation, The measures show that prior profitable or unprofitable exchange experiences shifted affect and individual social motives, as well as initial bargaining positions. In Study 2, shifts in relational accounts altered the bargaining process and subsequent implementation of agreements. The relational accounting concept represents an important link for understanding how negotiation functions as a sub-process in the wider stream of social exchange.
This article presents texts recovered by post-processing of multispectral images from the fifth- or sixth-century underwriting of the palimpsest Codex Climaci Rescriptus. Texts identified include the Anonymous II Proemium to Aratus’ Phaenomena, parts of Eratosthenes’ Catasterisms, Aratus’ Phaenomena lines 71–4 and 282–99 and previously unknown text, including some of the earliest astronomical measurements to survive in any Greek manuscript. Codex Climaci Rescriptus also contains at least three astronomical drawings. These appear to form part of an illustrated manuscript, with considerable textual value not merely on the basis of its age but also of its readings. The manuscript undertexts show significant overlap with the Φ Edition, postulated as ancestor of the various Latin Aratea.
This report provides the first confirmed identifications of wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri) and striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in the Red Sea, expanding the known ranges of these species into the basin. Potential mechanisms responsible for the lack of regional documentation of the two species are further discussed. These findings illustrate the need for systematic biodiversity surveys of pelagic fish assemblages in the Red Sea.
While shared clinical decision-making (SDM) is the preferred approach to decision-making in mental health care, its implementation in everyday clinical practice is still insufficient. The European Psychiatric Association undertook a study aiming to gather data on the clinical decision-making style preferences of psychiatrists working in Europe.
We conducted a cross-sectional online survey involving a sample of 751 psychiatrists and psychiatry specialist trainees from 38 European countries in 2021, using the Clinical Decision-Making Style – Staff questionnaire and a set of questions regarding clinicians’ expertise, training, and practice.
SDM was the preferred decision-making style across all European regions ([central and eastern Europe, CEE], northern and western Europe [NWE], and southern Europe [SE]), with an average of 73% of clinical decisions being rated as SDM. However, we found significant differences in non-SDM decision-making styles: participants working in NWE countries more often prefer shared and active decision-making styles rather than passive styles when compared to other European regions, especially to the CEE. Additionally, psychiatry specialist trainees (compared to psychiatrists), those working mainly with outpatients (compared to those working mainly with inpatients) and those working in community mental health services/public services (compared to mixed and private settings) have a significantly lower preference for passive decision-making style.
The preferences for SDM styles among European psychiatrists are generally similar. However, the identified differences in the preferences for non-SDM styles across the regions call for more dialogue and educational efforts to harmonize practice across Europe.
Shade coffee is a well-studied cultivation strategy that creates habitat for tropical birds while also maintaining agricultural yield. Although there is a general consensus that shade coffee is more “bird-friendly” than a sun coffee monoculture, little work has investigated the effects of specific shade tree species on insectivorous bird diversity. This study involved avian foraging observations, mist-netting data, temperature loggers, and arthropod sampling to investigate bottom-up effects of two shade tree taxa - native Cordia sp. and introduced Grevillea robusta - on insectivorous bird communities in central Kenya. Results indicate that foliage-dwelling arthropod abundance, and the richness and overall abundance of foraging birds were all higher on Cordia than on Grevillea. Furthermore, multivariate analyses of the bird community indicate a significant difference in community composition between the canopies of the two tree species, though the communities of birds using the coffee understorey under these shade trees were similar. In addition, both shade trees buffered temperatures in coffee, and temperatures under Cordia were marginally cooler than under Grevillea. These results suggest that native Cordia trees on East African shade coffee farms may be better at mitigating habitat loss and attracting insectivorous birds that could promote ecosystem services. Identifying differences in prey abundance and preferences in bird foraging behaviour not only fills basic gaps in our understanding of the ecology of East African coffee farms, it also aids in developing region-specific information to optimize functional diversity, ecosystem services, and the conservation of birds in agricultural landscapes.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To describe and evaluate an innovative university-community vaccination and food access model for minority, immigrant, and underserved individuals experiencing food insecurity during a global pandemic. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Purdue University Center for Health Equity and Innovation (CHEqI) partnered with the two largest food banks in the Midwest and Walgreens to offer free COVID-19 and Flu vaccinations alongside food distribution. Goals included addressing food insecurity, increasing vaccine access, and decreasing vaccine hesitancy. CHEqI acquired funding, recruited volunteers and interpreters, assessed interest and addressed vaccine hesitancy. Food bank/pantry partners distributed food and provided access to clientele and marketing assistance. Walgreens procured, administered, and documented vaccinations. The Model accommodated drive-through and indoor processes. Unidentifiable observational and self-report data were collected. Descriptive statistics were computed to characterize program outcomes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 11 vaccination events occurred between June and October 2021 at three food bank/pantry locations. Of these 11 events, nine (82%) were drive-through and two (18%) took place indoors, eight (72%) offered COVID-19 vaccinations only, and three (27%) offered both COVID-19 and Flu vaccinations. Food was distributed to a total of 5,108 families and 416 vaccines (314 COVID, 102 Flu) were administered. Of the 396 individuals who received at least one vaccine, 20 (5%) received both a COVID and Flu vaccine. Of the 386 individuals who received at least one vaccine and reported their sex, 194 (50%) identified as female and the average age of those who received at least one vaccine was 45 years old. Of those who reported race (N = 228) or ethnicity (N = 253), 43% identified as Black or African American and 53% identified as LatinX. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Findings offer an innovative vaccination and food access model for diverse individuals experiencing food insecurity during a global pandemic. By drawing on cost effective, accessible, and culturally contextualized practices to optimize the reach and quality of vaccination services we can improve access barriers and mitigate health disparities.
A number of governmental and nongovernmental organizations have made significant efforts to encourage the development of artificial intelligence in line with a series of aspirational concepts such as transparency, interpretability, explainability, and accountability. The difficulty at present, however, is that these concepts exist at a fairly abstract level, whereas in order for them to have the tangible effects desired they need to become more concrete and specific. This article undertakes precisely this process of concretisation, mapping how the different concepts interrelate and what in particular they each require in order to move from being high-level aspirations to detailed and enforceable requirements. We argue that the key concept in this process is accountability, since unless an entity can be held accountable for compliance with the other concepts, and indeed more generally, those concepts cannot do the work required of them. There is a variety of taxonomies of accountability in the literature. However, at the core of each account appears to be a sense of “answerability”; a need to explain or to give an account. It is this ability to call an entity to account which provides the impetus for each of the other concepts and helps us to understand what they must each require.
The dead from Kellis were buried in many locations: on the perimeter of the settlement, in the North, South and West Tombs, and in two cemeteries designated as Kellis 1 (K1) and Kellis 2 (K2). The individuals buried in these locations can reveal a great deal about life in Kellis and how the inhabitants coped with living in such a harsh desert environment. In this chapter we review the bioarcheological studies conducted on human remains from these locations. Bioarcheological investigations consider questions such as behavior and lifestyle, population history, identity, biological relatedness and quality of life through the integration of biological and archeological data. This approach emphasizes multiple lines of enquiry to provide important information about the people who lived in Kellis, including data on age, sex, diet, health and activity patterns.
It should be noted that several limitations must be considered when comparing the level of information available from each burial location. For example, the remains found in the K1 were disturbed through tomb reuse and then later in antiquity and contemporary times by tomb robbers. While there was some looting of the burials in the K2 during antiquity, this disturbance was not as extensive. A similar occurrence has been observed in the tomb structures within the boundaries of Kellis. The earlier burials in North Tomb 1 were extensively disturbed, while those interred during the fourth century were found intact. In North Tomb 2, all of the burials except for one were badly disturbed and had been exposed to extensive burning. In the other North Tombs that have been examined some of the burials were disturbed, while others were not. The reuse and looting in these areas resulted in damaged, missing or commingled skeletal elements, therefore inhibiting standard data collection across all burial sites and creating uneven data sets.
In the following discussion the results of the bioarcheological studies are presented in chronological order, and the dating follows that presented in the description of the various burial locations within this volume. In our approach to understanding life in Dakhleh Oasis, we examine the information gained from each cemetery.
While previous studies have suggested that higher levels of cognitive performance may be related to greater wellbeing and resilience, little is known about the associations between neural circuits engaged by cognitive tasks and wellbeing and resilience, and whether genetics or environment contribute to these associations.
The current study consisted of 253 monozygotic and dizygotic adult twins, including a subsample of 187 early-life trauma-exposed twins, with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data from the TWIN-E study. Wellbeing was measured using the COMPAS-W Wellbeing Scale while resilience was defined as a higher level of positive adaptation (higher levels of wellbeing) in the presence of trauma exposure. We probed both sustained attention and working memory processes using a Continuous Performance Task in the scanner.
We found significant negative associations between resilience and activation in the bilateral anterior insula engaged during sustained attention. Multivariate twin modelling showed that the association between resilience and the left and right insula activation was mostly driven by common genetic factors, accounting for 71% and 87% of the total phenotypic correlation between these variables, respectively. There were no significant associations between wellbeing/resilience and neural activity engaged during working memory updating.
The findings suggest that greater resilience to trauma is associated with less activation of the anterior insula during a condition requiring sustained attention but not working memory updating. This possibly suggests a pattern of ‘neural efficiency’ (i.e. more efficient and/or attenuated activity) in people who may be more resilient to trauma.
In the UK, postnatal depression is more common in British South Asian women than White Caucasion women. Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended as a first-line treatment, but there is little evidence for the adaptation of CBT for postnatal depression to ensure its applicability to different ethnic groups.
To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a CBT-based positive health programme group intervention in British South Asian women with postnatal depression.
We have designed a multicentre, two-arm, partially nested, randomised controlled trial with 4- and 12-month follow-up, comparing a 12-session group CBT-based intervention (positive health programme) plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual alone, for British South Asian women with postnatal depression. Participants will be recruited from primary care and appropriate community venues in areas of high South Asian density across the UK. It has been estimated that randomising 720 participants (360 into each group) will be sufficient to detect a clinically important difference between a 55% recovery rate in the intervention group and a 40% recovery rate in the treatment-as-usual group. An economic analysis will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the positive health programme. A qualitative process evaluation will explore barriers and enablers to study participation and examine the acceptability and impact of the programme from the perspective of British South Asian women and other key stakeholders.
Experience gained from responding to major outbreaks may have influenced the early coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response in several countries across Africa. We retrospectively assessed whether Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the three West African countries at the epicentre of the 2014–2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak, leveraged the lessons learned in responding to COVID-19 following the World Health Organization's (WHO) declaration of a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). We found relatively lower incidence rates across the three countries compared to many parts of the globe. Time to case reporting and laboratory confirmation also varied, with Guinea and Liberia reporting significant delays compared to Sierra Leone. Most of the selected readiness measures were instituted before confirmation of the first case and response measures were initiated rapidly after the outbreak confirmation. We conclude that the rapid readiness and response measures instituted by the three countries can be attributed to their lessons learned from the devastating Ebola outbreak, although persistent health systems weaknesses and the unique nature of COVID-19 continue to challenge control efforts.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Although mental wellbeing has been linked with positive health outcomes, including longevity and improved emotional and cognitive functioning, studies examining the underlying neural mechanisms of both subjective and psychological wellbeing have been sparse. We assessed whether both forms of wellbeing are associated with neural activity engaged during positive and negative emotion processing and the extent to which this association is driven by genetics or environment.
We assessed mental wellbeing in 230 healthy adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins using a previously validated questionnaire (COMPAS-W) and undertook functional magnetic resonance imaging during a facial emotion viewing task. We used linear mixed models to analyse the association between COMPAS-W scores and emotion-elicited neural activation. Univariate twin modelling was used to evaluate heritability of each brain region. Multivariate twin modelling was used to compare twin pairs to assess the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to this association.
Higher levels of wellbeing were associated with greater neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, localised in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), in response to positive emotional expressions of happiness. Univariate twin modelling showed activity in the IFG to have 20% heritability. Multivariate twin modelling suggested that the association between wellbeing and positive emotion-elicited neural activity was driven by common variance from unique environment (r = 0.208) rather than shared genetics.
Higher mental wellbeing may have a basis in greater engagement of prefrontal neural regions in response to positive emotion, and this association may be modifiable by unique life experiences.
A review of Australian mental health services identified a gap in routine outcome measures addressing social, emotional and behavioural domains for pre-schoolers and infants. A Child and Adolescent Mental Health Information Development Expert Advisory Panel working group developed the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Infants (HoNOSI), a clinician-reported routine outcome measure for infants 0–47 months. Prior face validity testing showed that the HoNOSI was considered useful in measuring mental health outcomes.
To examine the concurrent validity of the HoNOSI.
Mental health clinicians providing assessment and treatment to infants in routine clinical practice participated in the study. The mental health status of 108 infants were rated by a minimum of 26 clinicians with the HoNOSI, the Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) and measures of symptom severity and distress.
The HoNOSI was statistically significantly correlated with the PIR–;GAS, rs = −0.73; Clinical Worry, rs = 0.77; and Severity Judgement ratings, rs = 0.85; P < 0.001. A good level of internal consistency was found. Using the COsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria for judging instrument acceptability, the HoNOSI meets the standard for both concurrent validity and internal consistency.
There has been a clear need for a routine outcome measure for use with infants. This study provides positive evidence of aspects of validity. These findings, along with those from the prior face validity study, support a controlled release of the HoNOSI accompanied by further research and development.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveying has potential to become a powerful tool for sustainable parasite control. As trematode parasites require an intermediate snail host that is often aquatic or amphibious to fulfil their lifecycle, water-based eDNA analyses can be used to screen habitats for the presence of snail hosts and identify trematode infection risk areas. The aim of this study was to identify climatic and environmental factors associated with the detection of Galba truncatula eDNA. Fourteen potential G. truncatula habitats on two farms were surveyed over a 9-month period, with eDNA detected using a filter capture, extraction and PCR protocol with data analysed using a generalized estimation equation. The probability of detecting G. truncatula eDNA increased in habitats where snails were visually detected, as temperature increased, and as water pH decreased (P < 0.05). Rainfall was positively associated with eDNA detection in watercourse habitats on farm A, but negatively associated with eDNA detection in watercourse habitats on farm B (P < 0.001), which may be explained by differences in watercourse gradient. This study is the first to identify factors associated with trematode intermediate snail host eDNA detection. These factors should be considered in standardized protocols to evaluate the results of future eDNA surveys.
We provide an overview of the monetary policy failures that resulted in the 2007–2008 financial crisis and ensuing Great Recession, focusing on the United States. Before the crisis, monetary policy was too loose, which fueled the bubble. After the bubble burst, monetary policy became too tight, hindering the recovery. These failures are fundamentally due to the Federal Reserve’s discretionary monetary policy. Furthermore, the popular approach of “constrained discretion” is really just discretion. Hence, it is sensitive to all the usual problems with discretionary monetary policy. Only firm monetary rules, ones that actually bind, can maintain macroeconomic stability and prevent crises.