To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Mass-gathering events (MGEs) occur regularly throughout the world. As people congregate at MGEs, there is an increased risk of transmission of communicable diseases. Novel respiratory viruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1), Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Strain 2009 (H1N1pdm09), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), or Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), may require specific infection prevention and control strategies to minimize the risk of transmission when planning MGEs. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze papers relating to novel respiratory viruses with pandemic potential and to inform MGE planning.
This paper used a systematic literature review method. Various health care databases were searched using keywords relating to MGEs and novel respiratory viruses. Information was extracted from identified papers into various tables for analysis. The analysis identified infection prevention and control strategies used at MGEs to inform planning before, during, and following events.
In total, 27 papers met the criteria for inclusion. No papers were identified regarding SARS-CoV-1, while the remainder reported on H1N1pdm09 (n = 9), MERS-CoV (n = 15), and SARS-CoV-2 (n = 3). Various before, during, and after event mitigation strategies were identified that can be implemented for future events.
This literature review provided an overview of the novel respiratory virus epidemiology at MGEs alongside related public health mitigation strategies that have been implemented at these events. This paper also discusses the health security of event participants and host communities in the context of cancelling, postponing, and modifying events due to a novel respiratory virus. In particular, ways to recommence events incorporating various mitigation strategies are outlined.
Infectious disease emergencies are increasingly becoming part of the health care delivery landscape, having implications to not only individuals and the public, but also on those expected to respond to these emergencies. Health care workers (HCWs) are perhaps the most important asset in an infectious disease emergency, yet these individuals have their own barriers and facilitators to them being willing or able to respond.
The purpose of this review was to identify factors affecting HCW willingness to respond (WTR) to duty during infectious disease outbreaks and/or bioterrorist events.
An integrative literature review methodology was utilized to conduct a structured search of the literature including CINAHL, Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases using key terms and phrases. PRISMA guidelines were used to report the search outcomes and all eligible literature was screened with those included in the final review collated and appraised using a quality assessment tool.
A total of 149 papers were identified from the database search. Forty papers were relevant following screening, which highlighted facilitators of WTR to include: availability of personal protective equipment (PPE)/vaccine, level of training, professional ethics, family and personal safety, and worker support systems. A number of barriers were reported to prevent WTR for HCWs, such as: concern and perceived risk, interpersonal factors, job-level factors, and outbreak characteristics.
By comprehensively identifying the facilitators and barriers to HCWs’ WTR during infectious disease outbreaks and/or bioterrorist events, strategies can be identified and implemented to improve WTR and thus improve HCW and public safety.
The aim of this paper is to further develop an existing data model for mass-gathering health outcomes.
Mass-gathering events (MGEs) occur frequently throughout the world. Having an understanding of the complexities of MGEs is important to determine required health resources. Environmental, psychosocial, and biomedical domains may be a logical starting point to determine how data are being collected and reported in the literature; however, it may be that other factors influencing health resources are not identified within these domains.
Based on an exhaustive literature synthesis, this paper is the final paper in a series that explores the collection of variables that impact biomedical presentations associated with attendance/participation in MGEs.
The authors propose further evolution of the Arbon model to include the addition of several domains, including: event environment; command, control, and communication (C3); public health; health promotion; and legacy when reporting the health outcomes of an event.
Including a variety of domains that contribute to an MGE allows for formal evaluation of the event, which in turn informs future knowledge and skill development for both the event management group and the wider community.
Mass-gathering events (MGEs) are commonly associated with a higher than average rate of morbidity. Spectators, workers, and the substantial number of MGE attendees can increase the spread of communicable diseases. During an MGE, emergency departments (EDs) play an important role in offering health care services to both residents of the local community and event attendees. Syndromic indicators (SIs) are widely used in an ED surveillance system for early detection of communicable diseases.
This literature review aimed to develop an understanding of the effect of MGEs on ED patient presentations with communicable diseases and their corresponding SIs.
An integrative literature review methodology was used. Online databases were searched to retrieve relevant academic articles that focused on MGEs, EDs, and SIs. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied to screen articles. The Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research (QualSyst) assessment tool was used to assess the quality of included papers.
Eleven papers were included in this review; all discussed the impact of an MGE on patient presentations with communicable diseases at EDs/hospitals. Most included studies used the raw number of patients who presented or were admitted to EDs/hospitals to determine impact. Further, the majority of studies focused on either respiratory infections (n = 4) or gastrointestinal infections (n = 2); two articles reported on both. Eight articles mentioned SIs; however, such information was limited. The quality of evidence (using QualSyst) ranged from 50% to 90%.
Limited research exists on the impact of MGEs on ED presentations with communicable diseases and related SIs. Recommendations for future MGE studies include assessing differences in ED presentations with communicable diseases regarding demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes before, during, and after the event. This would benefit health care workers and researchers by offering more comprehensive knowledge for application into practice.
Clinical Nursing Skills provides students with a strong, industry-focused foundation in nursing across various clinical settings. It includes the essential theory as well as relevant practical examples, which illustrate the skills required to prepare students for the workplace and help them achieve clinical competence. Each chapter is written by leading academics and based on the registered nurse standards for practice. Pedagogical features include learning objectives, reflective questions, clinical tips, full-colour images, in-situ troubleshooting case studies, skills in practice case studies, keys terms and definitions, and research topics for further study. Clinical Nursing Skills is a highly practical and authoritative resource designed to educate the next generation of nurses. The book comes with free access to the VitalSource etext. This enhanced version of Clinical Nursing Skills houses homework assignments, tutorial assistance, guided solutions and additional content in one convenient resource, which you can download to your computer or mobile device.