To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this chapter we deal with the preservation and transmission of Greek and Latin letters in Late Antiquity. We begin with the problematic of letter-collections, in which a large number of letters has come down to us, before addressing the transmission of letters in translations, many of which were made in order to save their authors from damnatio memoriae. Missing letters then occupy us, whether their absence is documented or can be read between the lines or whether they were never written at all. In this section we discuss the problematic correspondence between Augustine and Jerome, a cause célèbre in late-antique epistolographical studies and an example of what could go wrong in correspondences of the time, before addressing the question of forgeries, tampering of documents transmitted from author to recipient, and pieces that have some down to us with erroneous attributions.
In this chapter we consider the differences and similarities between Classical and Christian approaches to epistolarity in Late Antiquity, and the extent to which we can speak of the ‘Christianisation’ of the letter-form in that period. We provide a consideration of the materials and mechanics of letter-writing in Antiquity, including materials, length of letters, dictation, scribes, autograph, and signature. After an assessment of the ‘pagan-Christian divide’, we take cognisance of the tropes of the letter and how Christianity made its mark in this regard. Subsequently we discuss literary vs papyrological letters. Finally we look at the various modes of address used by pagans and Christians in their letters.
Did a Christianisation of gifts accompany Christian letter-writing? It is certain that gifts of books became particularly important for cultivating Christian unity in the doctrinal sphere. Food, saints’ relics and church plate were also prized by recipients. While the fourth and fifth centuries saw an explosion of epistolarity, by 500 CE letter exchange had begun to dwindle, or at least fewer examples from then have survived. With regard to future directions we note that the study of letter-writing in the Jewish diaspora is very much needed. In addition more work remains to be done on the process of collecting letters, whether secular or Christian, in the late Classical period and in Late Antiquity. This is particularly true of papyrological sources, and the letters and collections of the sixth century deserve more scholarly attention.
In this chapter we deal with letter types and their uses, discussing the popularity of new letter forms in early Christianity. These forms are then divided into groups: episcopal letters, conciliar letters, those written by monastic bishops and by the bishops of Rome. Monastic letters and those of spiritual direction are also considered, together with imperial letters to or from the imperial family and other royal houses.
Here we convey the variety and complexity of late-antique Greek and Latin correspondences, tracing their antecedents from Classical times, their indebtedness to the apostle Paul, and subsequently to the post-apostolic writers. In the course of this overview we consider the considerable influence which Adolf Deissmann wielded in the first quarter of the twentieth century, and subsequently, on the question of what exactly a letter is. Now we are more cautious about writing and speaking about ‘letters’ and the ‘letter-genre’. Our next step in this chapter was to attempt a taxonomy of the more than 9,000 literary letters from Christian Late Antiquity, beginning with the category of dissenting voices.
The importance of the early Christian letter can only be understood in the context of information exchange in the early Christian church. The information exchange networks that characterised first-century Jewish letter-writers were spatially very limited when compared with the expanded remit of letter-writing Christian leaders. This chapter deals with the networks of communication reflected in the late-antique Christian letter, a period when there was a significant increase in long-distance travel as elites established communication networks that went beyond single provinces. One of the greatest innovations of the Christian letter was that it could be addressed to people whom one did not already know. Previously, elite correspondence was carried out with known people who were absent, and thus letters provide our best look at how such people communicated.
In this chapter we turn to the question how letters were delivered to their destinations and beyond. We consider the difference between public and private letters and their bearers, and what impact this may have had on early Christian correspondences. Modes of transport and various possible itineraries affected the progress of the letter from the writing to the delivery stage, in all of this the bearer being of paramount importance, which requires us to investigate as far as possible the identity of the couriers, and how they were chosen. The important place occupied by the verbal report of the bearers is addressed, together with the considerable problems and hazards which they faced in their missions, some of which were occasioned by brigands, delay or haste. We consider the hospitality offered to these travellers and the friendship which either existed or could ensue between them and the recipients of letters. Finally, we look briefly at the circulation and forwarding of letters.
This is the first general book on Greek and Latin letter-writing in Late Antiquity (300–600 CE). Allen and Neil examine early Christian Greek and Latin literary letters, their nature and function and the mechanics of their production and dissemination. They examine the exchange of Episcopal, monastic and imperial letters between men, and the gifts that accompanied them, and the rarer phenomenon of letter exchanges with imperial and aristocratic women. They also look at the transmission of letter-collections and what they can tell us about friendships and other social networks between the powerful elites who were the literary letter-writers of the fourth to sixth centuries. The volume gives a broad context to late-antique literary letter-writing in Greek and Latin in its various manifestations: political, ecclesiastical, practical and social. In the process, the differences between 'pagan' and Christian letter-writing are shown to be not as great as has previously been supposed.
Policy driven change is challenging, with a significant gap between theory and practice. A key tension in enacting such change is achieving a balance between bottom-up development of local, context-specific approaches, and top-down, centrally determined policy solutions and their mutual sequencing. Ideal type models of the policy-making process envisage a rational ordered approach, driven by evidence and accompanied by ongoing evaluation of outcomes (Parsons, 1995, p77); however, the reality is far more complex. We examine the implementation and early operation of the New Care Models (NCM) Vanguard programme in England, using Matland’s (1995) ambiguity-conflict model, to explore the aims and expectations of the programme. We consider the relationship between top-down and bottom-up approaches to policy development and draw attention to the pressures coming from what was initially perceived as a permissive policy approach of encouraging experimentation, whilst also requiring rapid learning, scale and spread. We suggest that future programmes for large-scale policy implementation initiatives could be crafted differently to take account of the environment of implementation and render ambitions more realistic. Rather than aiming to create a set of definite products and templates, it may be that a set of principles for design and implementation should be developed and spread.