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To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events
Retrospective chart review
A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania
All patients hospitalized during 2011–2012
Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded.
We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented.
In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015.
The Surgical Care Improvement Project bundle emphasizes operative infection prevention practices. Despite implementing the Surgical Care Improvement Project bundle in 2008, spinal fusion surgical site infections (SF-SSI) continued to be prevalent for this low-volume, high-risk surgery.
To design a combined pre-, peri-, and postoperative bundle (PPPB) that would lead to sustained reductions in SF-SSI rates.
Quality improvement project, before-after trial with cost-effectiveness analysis.
All spinal fusion patients, 2008–2015.
A multidisciplinary team developed the PPPB composed of Surgical Care Improvement Project elements plus improved wound care practices, nursing standard of care, dedicated nursing unit, dermatology assessment tool and consultation, nursing education tool using “teach back” technique, and a “Back Home” kit. SF-SSI rates were compared before (2008–2010) and after (2011-February 2015) implementation of PPPB. PPPB compliance was monitored.
A total of 224 SF surgeries were performed from 2008 to February 2015. Pre-PPPB analysis revealed median time to SF-SSI of 28 days, secondary to skin and bowel flora. Mean 3-year pre-PPPB SF-SSI rate per 100 SF surgeries was 8.2 (8/98) (2008: 13.3 [4/30], 2009: 2.7 [1/37], 2010: 9.7 [3/31]). Mean SF-SSI rate after PPPB was 2.4 (3/126) (January 2011-February 2015); there was a 71% reduction in mean SSI rate (P=.0695). No SF-SSI occurred in neuromuscular patients (P=.008) after PPPB. Compliance with PPPB elements has been 100%.
PPPB led to sustained improvement in SF-SSI rates over 50 months. The PPPB could be reproduced for other surgeries.
To assess consumption of resources in the infection control management of healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to pertussis and to assess avoidability of exposure.
Tertiary care children's medical center.
Analysis of the extent of and reasons for HCW exposure to pertussis during contact with children with the disease, whether exposures were avoidable (because of the failure to recognize a case or to order or adhere to isolation precautions) or unavoidable (because the case was not recognizable or because another diagnosis was confirmed), and the cost of implementing exposure management.
Interventions consisted of an investigation of every HCW encounter with any patient who was confirmed later to have pertussis from the time of hospital admission of the patient, use of azithromycin as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for exposed HCWs, performance of 21-day surveillance for cough illness, testing of symptomatic exposed HCWs for Bordetella pertussis, and enhanced preexposure education of HCWs.
From September 2003 through April 2005, pertussis was confirmed in 28 patients (median age, 62 days); 24 patients were admitted. For 11 patients, pertussis was suspected, appropriate precautions were taken, and no HCW was exposed. Inadequate precautions for 17 patients led to 355 HCW exposures. The median number of HCWs exposed per exposing patient was 9 (range, 1-86 HCWs; first quartile mean, 2; fourth quartile mean, 61). Exposure was definitely avoidable for only 61 (17%) of 355 HCWs and was probably unavoidable for 294 HCWs (83%). The cost of 20-month infection control management of HCWs exposed to pertussis was $69,770. The entire cohort of HCWs involved in direct patient care at the facility could be immunized for approximately $60,000.
Exposure of HCWs to pertussis during contact with children who have the disease is largely unavoidable, and management of this exposure is resource intensive. Universal preexposure vaccination of HCWs is a better utilization of resources than is case-based postexposure management.
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