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Occupying the dual space of psychoactive substances and food, alcohol has to date escaped the international labelling standards required of either category. Following growing consumer concern focused on ingredient and energy labelling, the issue of alcohol labelling has been brought to the Codex Committee on Food Labelling (CCFL). Russia led the development of a discussion paper on the labelling of alcohol beverages, which was debated in May 2019. The discussion paper presented five policy options, ranging from doing nothing to initiating open-ended work on a new Codex standard. The progression of alcohol labelling through the CCFL raises a number of issues for public health advocates, as placing alcohol within the scope of the Codex clearly places labelling within the food system and has the potential to side-line health labelling concerns. This paper will first describe the process leading to the consideration of alcohol labelling at the CCFL and then consider the health and advocacy implications of the different options proposed to progress the work plan.
We evaluated the impact of exposure to a second language on infants’ emerging speech production skills. We compared speech produced by three groups of 12-month-old infants while they interacted with interlocutors who spoke to them in Spanish and English: monolingual English-learning infants who had previously received 5 hours of exposure to a second language (Spanish), English- and Spanish-learning simultaneous bilinguals, and monolingual English-learning infants without any exposure to Spanish. Our results showed that the monolingual English-learning infants with short-term exposure to Spanish and the bilingual infants, but not the monolingual English-learning infants without exposure to Spanish, flexibly matched the prosody of their babbling to that of a Spanish- or English-speaking interlocutor. Our findings demonstrate the nature and extent of benefits for language learning from early exposure to two languages. We discuss the implications of these findings for language organization in infants learning two languages.
This case report describes carbon monoxide toxicity from prolonged shisha (water-pipe) smoking. The evidence base for the source and pathway of toxicity is discussed. This practice has been increasing in the UK in recent years, and emergency physicians need to be aware of the high levels of CO, with the consequent risk of clinical poisoning from water-pipe smoking.
ClarkeSFJ, StephensC, FarhanM, WardP, KeshishianC, MurrayV, ZennerD. Multiple Patients with Carbon Monoxide Toxicity from Water-Pipe Smoking. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(6):1-3.
To investigate marketing techniques used on the packaging of child-oriented products sold through supermarkets.
Food and beverage products which met criteria for ‘marketed to children’ were recorded as child-oriented. The products were analysed for food categories, nutritional value, and type and extent of marketing techniques used.
A major supermarket chain in Adelaide, South Australia.
Child-oriented food and beverage products.
One hundred and fifty-seven discrete products were marketed to children via product packaging; most (75·2 %) represented non-core foods, being high in fat or sugar. Many marketing techniques (more than sixteen unique marketing techniques) were used to promote child-oriented food products. Claims about health and nutrition were found on 55·5 % of non-core foods. A median of 6·43 marketing techniques per product was found.
The high volume and power of marketing non-core foods to children via product packaging in supermarkets should be of concern to policy makers wanting to improve children's diet for their health and to tackle childhood obesity. Claims about health or nutrition on non-core foods deserve urgent attention owing to their potential to mislead and confuse child and adult consumers.
To estimate the extent of food insecurity in South Australia and its relationship with a variety of socio-economic variables.
Data collected routinely from 2002 to 2007 by SA Health were analysed to explore food security in the State’s population. An ecological analysis of data collected by the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) that collects data on key health indicators. Questions on food security are asked periodically from July 2002 to December 2007.
Over 37 000 interviewees took part in SAMSS surveys. Questions about food security were asked of 19 037 subjects. The sample was weighted by area, age and gender so that the results were representative of the South Australian population.
Seven per cent (1342/19 037) of subjects reported running out of food during the previous year and not having enough money to buy food (food insecurity). Logistic regression analysis found food insecurity to be highest in households with low levels of education, limited capacity to save money, Aboriginal households, and households with three or more children.
The study confirms that food insecurity is strongly linked to economic disadvantage. Increasing cost of food is likely to exacerbate food insecurity. This is of concern given that food insecurity is associated with poor health, especially obesity and chronic disease. Comprehensive action at all levels is required to address root causes of food insecurity. Regular surveillance is required to continue to monitor levels of food security, but more in-depth understandings, via qualitative research, would be useful.
An approach to managing the multiply-injured patient
The incidence of trauma (both blunt and penetrating) is rising in the UK. Associated with significant morbidity and mortality, trauma is the commonest cause of death in the first four decades of life and mostly affects people in their third decade. Males are more likely to be injured than females. Death from trauma follows a tri-modal distribution where 50% of deaths occur at the time of trauma followed by another peak at an hour (golden hour) followed by a subsequent peak weeks or months later.
Trauma is frequently associated with multi-system injury. Such injuries may be difficult to identify and can be life threatening. The ‘Primary survey’ provides a simple and effective method for identifying and treating life-threatening injuries in the multiply-injured patient by treating the greatest threat to life first.
Assessment, investigation and treatment of the trauma patient are performed simultaneously. It may not be possible to take an accurate history until life-threatening problems have been addressed. Key information about mechanism of injury should be collected from paramedics who attended the scene. Several members of a ‘trauma team’ have specific roles using the same principles of trauma management under the guidance of an experienced Team Leader.
There are potential pitfalls with respect to the management of patients at the extremes of age, and pregnant women – this is because of altered physiology (senescent or iatrogenic).
Approximately 1 in 200 UK pregnancies ends in stillbirth. Although
serious psychological effects of stillbirth on mothers are well
established, much less is known about the impact of such loss on
To assess the psychological morbidity of fathers in the pregnancy and
post-partum year subsequentto a stillbirth, to test within-couple effects
and to identify risk factors.
This was a community-based cohort study of 38 pregnant couples whose
previous pregnancy had ended in stillbirth, and 38 pair-matched controls.
Psychological assessments took place antenatally and at 6 weeks, 6 months
and 1 year postnatally.
Fathers in the index group experienced significant levels of anxiety and
post-traumatic stress disorder antenatally, but all of their symptoms
remitted postnatally (after the birth of a live baby). Fathers' symptom
levels were lower than those of mothers at all time points. In contrast
to mothers, fathers experienced greater anxiety when a subsequent
pregnancy (following stillbirth) was delayed.
The vulnerability of fathers to psychological distress during the
pregnancy after a stillbirth needs to be recognised.
What better time could there be to major in literature than now? The corpus of texts available, thanks to translation, is that of the world. The boundaries of the literary are allinclusive, embracing high and low culture. Reading lists are always a surprise. You can be a literature major and work with film, with computer-generated texts and hypertexts. You can cross over into creative writing and communications. The skills you will learn are easily transferable and will enable you to be a candidate in a variety of areas when you enter the job market, especially if you have had an internship. Humanities majors are more likely to attain leadership positions during their careers than are students in narrow technical fields. A literature major can even be combined with premed and prelaw if you are thinking about graduate school.
Chemical affinity-based rate laws are used across the geochemical and materials communities to quantify mineral/material corrosion and growth kinetics. These rate expressions are founded in assumptions regarding reaction mechanism with little evidence for surface processes. Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), this study demonstrates the dependence of growth kinetics upon the structures of dislocation sources. In situ observations show that the dominant mode of growth occurs by hillock development initiated at complex sources. Derivations of surface process-based rate expressions show a complex dependence of rate on chemical affinity. This dependence is approximated by second order affinity-based rate laws only under the special conditions that 1) growth proceeds by development of single sourced spirals and 2) growth occurs at very near equilibrium conditions where spiral formation is the only operative mechanism. This suggests that growth experiments that measure temporal changes in solution chemistry yield a composite rate that arises from the contributions of the different hillock types. Hence, chemical affinity-based rate laws do not generally give meaningful interpretations of growth mechanism. By combining direct observations with macroscopic methods that monitor temporal changes in solution chemistry, rate laws with greater predictive capabilities may be possible.
Magnesium is a key determinant in CaCO3 biomineral formation and has recently emerged as an important paleotemperature proxy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic controls of Mg2+ on calcite morphology and growth. Comparison of directly measured monomolecular step velocities (vs±) to theoretical crystal growth impurity models demonstrated calcite inhibition due to enhanced mineral solubility through Mg2+ incorporation. Terrace width (λ) measurements independently supported an incorporation mechanism by indicating a shift in the effective supersaturation (σeff) of the growth solutions in the presence of Mg2+. This study resolves the controversy over the molecular-scale mechanism of calcite inhibition by Mg2+ and provides an unambiguous model for the thermodynamic and kinetic consequences of impurity incorporation into CaCO3 biominerals.
Jeanne-Marie Bouvier de la Motte Guyon (1648–1717) has been best known for her role in the Quietist controversy of late-seventeenthcentury France, leading to the public debate that pitted her defender, Fenelon, against Bossuet. Madame de Maintenon, the wife of Louis XIV, also became an opponent, adding her influence to that of Bossuet, so that Madame Guyon was imprisoned in the Bastille from 1698 to 1703.
Oligonucleotide probes that can be cyclized by ligation (“padlock probes”) provide a very high degree of recognition specificity. Nilsson et al. have demonstrated the used of padlock probes for the cytological localization of alphoid repeats in chromosome 12. We have been extending the use of padlock probes to the detection of single copy sequences, and with this in mind have explored the amplification of DNA circles.
We designed a primer complementary to the arbitrary backbone (non-probing) sequence of a 92-base closed circular probe oligonucleotide and investigated the kinetics of rolling circle replication. Using the highly processive, strand-displacing DNA polymerase of phage ∅29 (kindly provided by Dr. Margarita Salas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain) we demonstrated that several hundred tandem copies of the circular oligonucleotide are generated in a few minutes of incubation at 32°C. Because the amplified DNA remains hybridized to the circle in a rolling circle reaction, this method of amplification offers unique advantages for in situ gene detection since the amplified DNA can not diffuse away from the site of synthesis.
In this paper I argue that Socrates believed that there is no distinction between man's virtue and woman's virtue and that there is no difference in the achievement of virtue between men and women. My analysis shows Plato's position on the moral equality of guardian women and men in the Republic to be a continuation of the Socratic position of nongendered virtue. I thus disagree with Spelman's recent interpretation of the Republic on this issue.