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Soil phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major challenges for the cultivation of rice worldwide because it limits the growth and productivity of the crop. Therefore, the ability to grow in P-deficit soils is an important trait for rice cultivation. O . rufipogon Griff., a wild relative of rice, is a source of genetic variation for low phosphorus tolerance. The present study was undertaken to identify low P stress-tolerant introgression lines by analysing stress tolerance indices of 40 introgression lines of O. rufipogon. The populations were screened under low soil P and normal soil P plots for two growing seasons. Based on yield under stress and normal conditions, we computed different stress indices, including stress tolerance index (STI), tolerance index, yield reduction ratio (YR), stress susceptibility index, yield stability index (YSI), yield index, per cent yield reduction and geometric mean productivity (GMP). The studies of correlation analysis, principal component analysis and clustering revealed that STI, YSI and GMP were ideal indices for the selection of genotypes that performed well under both stress and normal conditions. Based on these indices, introgression lines (IL-24, IL-29 and IL-32) were identified as promising low P tolerant lines, which exhibited better grain yield under both stress (YS) and normal (YP) conditions. These pre-breeding lines serve as valuable genetic resources for low P tolerance in rice breeding programmes across the world.
This study was conducted to characterize new plant type (NPT) traits among 650 genetically diverse rice genotypes of tropical japonica and indica and to establish an initial core set for NPT traits. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits assessed except flag length and width and leaf angles. Dendrogram categorized the genotypes into five distinct duration groups. Genotypes viz., Pumphamah, IRGC5097, IRGC37015, IRGC43741, IRGC50448, IRGC53089, IRGC39111, IRGC18021, Haorei Machang, IRGC44069, IRGC8269, Thangmoi, IRGC33130 and IRGC29772 were identified as possessing strong culm. Long panicles with a length of more than 35 cm were found in IRGC8269, IRGC9147, IRGC14694, IRGC19642, IRGC27435, IRGC39111, IRGC31051, IRGC26011and IRGC25892. Ideal leaf angle of NPT genotypes of 5°, 10° and 20° of flag leaf, 1st and 2nd leaves was not found in any genotype but with a combination of 5°, 10° and 10° was observed in IRGC63102 and IRGC66644. NPT flag leaf length and width of 50 and 2 cm, respectively, was seen in ‘Kemenya Kepeu’ and ‘IRGC29772’. High grain number of more than 350 was observed in IRGC53089, IRGC31063 and Azhoghi. A total of 72 genotypes were found with a combination of one or more ideal plant type traits of which, hierarchical cluster analysis based on genetic distances selected 32 as NPT core set. This core set will serve as an ideal genetic resource for breeding programs aimed at NPT development.
Integration of photonic devices on silicon (Si) substrates is a key method in enabling large scale manufacturing of Si-based photonic–electronic circuits for next generation systems with high performance, small form factor, low power consumption, and low cost. Germanium (Ge) is a promising material due to its pseudo-direct bandgap and its compatibility with Si-CMOS processing. In this article, we present our recent progress on achieving high quality germanium-on-silicon (Ge/Si) materials. Subsequently, the performance of various functional devices such as photodetectors, lasers, waveguides, and sensors that are fabricated on the Ge/Si platform are discussed. Some possible future works such as the incorporation of tin (Sn) into Ge will be proposed. Finally, some applications based on a fully monolithic integrated photonic–electronic chip on an Si platform will be highlighted at the end of this article.
Schizophrenia has been associated with limited abilities to interact effectively in social situations. Face perception and ability to recognise familiar faces are critical for social interaction. Patients with chronic schizophrenia are known to show impaired face recognition. Studying first-episode (FE) patients allows the exclusion of confounding effects of chronicity, medication and institutionalisation in this deficit.
To determine brain (dys)functions during a face encoding and recognition paradigm in FE schizophrenia.
Thirteen antipsychotic-naïve FE schizophrenia patients and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a face encoding and recognition paradigm. Behavioural responses were recorded on line.
Patients recognised significantly fewer of previously presented faces than the controls (p = 0.008). At the neural level, both groups activated a network of regions including the fusiform area, occipital, temporal and frontal regions. In brain activity, the two groups did not differ in any region during encoding or recognition conditions (p > 0.05, corrected or uncorrected).
Our findings show impaired face recognition without a significant alteration of related brain activity in FE schizophrenia patients. It is possible that neural changes become more strongly evident with progression of the illness, and manifest themselves as behavioural impairments during the early course.
Metallic nanoparticles are often obtained by chemical decomposition or reactive techniques involving the extensive usage of harmful reducing or stabilizing agents. A facile green synthesis technique resulting in readily exploitable nanoparticle dispersion in ionic liquid without the use of any additional agents is reported here. 1-Propyl- 3- Methyl Imidazolium Iodide (PMIM(I)) is a non-volatile, thermally stable and non-toxic ionic liquid. This eco-friendly liquid is used as the substrate for thermal evaporation of gold to obtain stable gold nanoparticles. On being examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy the high monodispersity in their sizes was revealed. The byproduct free, ‘clean’ processing technique helps in obtaining un-contaminated particles. The thermal evaporation method used (for the generation of metallic vapor) plays a significant role in the difference in kinetics of the formation and growth of nanoparticles, unlike the widely reported sputtering technique for vapor generation. The formed particles are deposited only on the top surface of the liquid. Thus the nucleation and growth of the particles can be considered to have occurred by surface diffusion process only. A deeper investigation into the formation kinetics has the potential application for synthesizing other nanomaterials via this environmental friendly approach.
A long-standing unresolved problem in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, namely, the relationship between friction drag and flow rate in inertialess complex kinematics flows of dilute polymeric solutions is investigated via self-consistent multiscale flow simulations. Specifically, flow of a highly elastic dilute polymeric solution, described by first principles micromechanical models, through a 4:1:4 axisymmetric contraction and expansion geometry is examined utilizing our recently developed highly efficient multiscale flow simulation algorithm (Koppol, Sureshkumar & Khomami, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., vol. 141, 2007, p. 180). Comparison with experimental measurements (Rothstein & McKinley, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., vol. 86, 1999, p. 61) shows that the pressure drop evolution as a function of flow rate can be accurately predicted when the chain dynamics is described by multi-segment bead-spring micromechanical models that closely capture the transient extensional viscosity of the experimental fluid. Specifically, for the first time the experimentally observed doubling of the dimensionless excess pressure drop at intermediate flow rates is predicted. Moreover, based on an energy dissipation analysis it has been shown that the variation of the excess pressure drop with the flow rate is controlled by the flow-microstructure coupling in the extensional flow dominated region of the flow. Finally, the influence of the macromolecular chain extensibility on the vortex dynamics, i.e. growth of the upstream corner vortex at low chain extensibility or the shrinkage of the upstream corner vortex coupled with the formation of a lip vortex that eventually merges with the upstream corner vortex at high chain extensibility is elucidated.
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