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We aimed to evaluate how coronavirus (COVID-19) restrictions had altered individual's drinking behaviours, including consumption, hangover experiences, and motivations to drink, and changing levels of depression and anxiety.
We conducted an online cross-sectional self-report survey. Whole group analysis compared pre- versus post-COVID restrictions. A correlation coefficient matrix evaluated the associations between all outcome scores. Self-report data was compared with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores from the 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Multiple linear modelling (MLM) was calculated to identify factors associated with increasing AUDIT scores and post-restriction AUDIT scores.
In total, 346 individuals completed the survey, of which 336 reported drinking and were therefore analysed. After COVID-19 restrictions 23.2% of respondents reported an increased AUDIT score, and 60.1% a decreased score. AUDIT score change was positively correlated with change in depression (P < 0.01, r = 0.15), anxiety (P < 0.01, r = 0.15) and drinking to cope scores (P < 0.0001, r = 0.35). MLM revealed that higher AUDIT scores were associated with age, mental illness, lack of a garden, self-employed or furloughed individuals, a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and smoking status.
COVID-19 restrictions decreased alcohol consumption for the majority of individuals in this study. However, a small proportion increased their consumption; this related to drinking to cope and increased depression and anxiety.
Recent field research has shown that some wild primates possess detailed knowledge of the location and quality of many resources in their home ranges (Janson & Byrne 2007). Understanding how nonhuman primates (hereafter primates) store, organize, and use such information is important for understanding the evolution of human spatial cognition. Knowledge of primate spatial cognition can also inform conservation initiatives for threatened populations by improving protected habitat such that primates are encouraged to travel through desired areas and discouraged from traveling near human development, thereby reducing primate–human conflict.
Among 353 healthcare personnel in a longitudinal cohort in 4 hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia (May–June 2020), 23 (6.5%) had severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. Spending >50% of a typical shift at the bedside (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2–10.5) and black race (OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 2.7–27.4) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity.
The Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) survey aims to use circumstellar SiO maser line-of-sight velocities as probes for the Galactic gravitational potential and dynamical structure. The SiO masers are detected at a high rate in specific color-selected MSX infrared sources. Furthermore, the SiO maser properties and line ratios, in combination with infrared spectral energy distributions and location in the Galaxy, will statistically yield detailed information on population and evolution of low- to intermediate-mass evolved stars in the Galaxy.
We report on the Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamic Evolution (BAaDE) survey which has observed 19 000 MSX color selected red giant stars for SiO maser emission at 43 GHz with the VLA and is in the process of observing 9 000 of these stars with ALMA at 86 GHz in the Southern sky. Our setup covers the main maser transitions, as well as those of isotopologues and selected lines of carbon-bearing species. Observations of this set of lines allow a far-reaching catalog of line-of-sight velocities in the dust-obscured regions where optical surveys cannot reach. Our preliminary detection rate is close to 70%, predicting a wealth of new information on the distribution of metal rich stars, their kinematics as function of location in the Galaxy, as well as the occurrence of lines and line ratios between the different transitions in combination with the spectral energy distribution from about 1 to 100 μm. Similar to the OH/IR stars, a clear kinematic signature between disk and bulge stars can be seen. Furthermore, the SiO J = →10 (v=3) line plays a prominent role in the derived maser properties.
The Sahara was wetter and greener during multiple interglacial periods of the Quaternary, when some have suggested it featured very large (mega) lakes, ranging in surface area from 30,000 to 350,000 km2. In this paper, we review the physical and biological evidence for these large lakes, especially during the African Humid Period (AHP) 11–5 ka. Megalake systems from around the world provide a checklist of diagnostic features, such as multiple well-defined shoreline benches, wave-rounded beach gravels where coarse material is present, landscape smoothing by lacustrine sediment, large-scale deltaic deposits, and in places, tufas encrusting shorelines. Our survey reveals no clear evidence of these features in the Sahara, except in the Chad basin. Hydrologic modeling of the proposed megalakes requires mean annual rainfall ≥1.2 m/yr and a northward displacement of tropical rainfall belts by ≥1000 km. Such a profound displacement is not supported by other paleo-climate proxies and comprehensive climate models, challenging the existence of megalakes in the Sahara. Rather than megalakes, isolated wetlands and small lakes are more consistent with the Sahelo-Sudanian paleoenvironment that prevailed in the Sahara during the AHP. A pale-green and discontinuously wet Sahara is the likelier context for human migrations out of Africa during the late Quaternary.
This paper reports the first successful synthesis and the structural characterization of nanocrystalline and stacking-disordered β-cristobalite AlPO4 that is chemically stabilized down to room temperature and free of crystalline impurity phases. Several batches of the title compound were synthesized and thoroughly characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping in SEM, solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy including the TRAPDOR method, differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas-sorption methods, optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and ion chromatography. Parameters that are critical for the synthesis were identified and optimized. The synthesis procedure yields reproducible results and is well documented. A high-quality XRD pattern of the title compound is presented, which was collected with monochromatic copper radiation at room temperature in a wide 2θ range of 5°–100°.
Recent archaeological investigations at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon reveal that residents constructed a large diversion channel during the eleventh century A.D. as dramatic growth resulted in the expansion of the building onto the main valley floor. Sediments in the diversion channel reflect repeated episodes of flooding, rather than slow moving water typically found in irrigation canals, and archaeobotanical data indicate deposition during late summer or early fall. Although an agricultural function is possible, the channel may have been built primarily to divert floodwaters away from Pueblo Bonito while providing a nearby water source for construction and domestic use. The diversion channel was destroyed by the entrenchment of the “Bonito paleo-channel” in the late A.D. 1000s, and then buried by a combination of cultural debris and valley flooding. Although the canyon stream system changed throughout the occupation of Pueblo Bonito, there is no evidence that the formation of a deep natural channel in the floodplain had any negative effect on the growth of the great house
Introduction: The use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) such as electronic cigarettes, vapour cigarettes, and vapour/hookah pens is rapidly increasing. The effectiveness of ENDS for smoking cessation and their safety, particularly amongst pregnant women, is largely unknown. Some women who use tobacco products in pregnancy, such as the one described in this case study, switch to ENDS assuming they are a safer alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes. Many obstetric providers do not screen for ENDS use and may miss an opportunity to counsel their patients about ENDS usage, side effects, or alternatives.
Case Description: Motivated by concern for her baby's health, a 28-year-old patient reduced consumption of traditional cigarettes and began using ENDS shortly after learning she was pregnant. Her obstetric team did not screen for ENDS use and was unaware that she had started using ENDS. During the postpartum period, her providers ordered a tobacco cessation consult and the tobacco treatment specialist (TTS) discovered the patient's ENDS use as well as her desire to quit.
Conclusions: In the absence of consistent screening by providers and a lack of safety data regarding ENDS use during pregnancy, women are often given little guidance in deciphering the potential risks and benefits of ENDS use. In this case, the patient turned to ENDS because she thought it was safer than smoking tobacco cigarettes and was unaware that there is limited research on ENDS safety. This case highlights the importance of updating clinical screening tools to include ENDS and the need for further research investigating the safety of ENDS use during pregnancy.
U–Pb ages of zircon from bentonites within the upper Cretaceous Bastion Ridge and Kanguk formations, Sverdrup Basin, provide constraints on sedimentation rates, biostratigraphic correlations, timing of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) in the High Arctic, and the late magmatic history of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). A late Cenomanian to early Turonian age for the base of the Kanguk Formation is confirmed that supports correlations of the global OAE2 in the High Arctic. Sedimentation rates varied from 19 m Ma−1 between 93 and 91 Ma to 26 m Ma−1 between 91 and 83 Ma at Axel Heiberg Island. At Ellef Ringnes Island, the lower Kanguk Formation records high rates of ~70 m Ma−1 between 94 and 93 Ma, which decrease to rates comparable to those of the upper Axel Heiberg section. Differences in sedimentation rates may reflect differences in setting prior to the major transgression in the latest Cenomanian to early Turonian. The timing of Arctic occurrences of the Scaphites nigricollensis and Scaphites depressus ammonite zones is shown to be broadly comparable to that of lower-latitude occurrences within the Western Interior Seaway. An eruption frequency of 0.5–2.5 Ma characterizes the late alkaline phase of HALIP magmatism. Volcanic bed thicknesses of 10–50 cm suggest ash transport distances of less than 1000 km. Long-lived volcanic centres, in the area of the Alpha Ridge, northern Ellesmere Island or northern Greenland, were the likely source of volcanic ash over a period of 10–15 Ma.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Hospital surgical services are often reluctant to offer nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to inpatients due to concerns that nicotine leads to vasoconstriction and impaired wound healing. However, multiple potential health benefits result from offering NRT to hospitalized surgical patients who use tobacco products. A 28-year-old female patient, hospitalized following a motor vehicle accident, experienced severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms and a strong desire to smoke. After a Tobacco Treatment Specialist (TTS) consultation, the Physical Medical and Rehabilitation service at the hospital began her on NRT with positive outcomes. The patient experienced decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms, as well as an increased desire to remain tobacco free after discharge. More surgical patients may have an increased commitment to remain tobacco free after discharge, if their withdrawal symptoms are treated during hospitalization using NRT.
Fibrous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was modified by organometallic vapor exposure to form hybrid materials with unique photoluminescent characteristics. Using a sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) process, the elongated exposures of trimethylaluminum (TMA) to PET were examined. As the infiltration temperature increased, the evidence of changes in the reaction between the organometallic vapor and the polymer was observed as well as significant changes in the infiltration depth into the polymer fiber, owing to the variation in the reaction mechanisms of the hybrid material formation. At TMA exposures of 60 °C, the mass of the polymer fiber increased by ∼55 wt%, whereas exposures at 150 °C were limited to ∼25 wt% infiltration. Photoluminescence analysis of PET after TMA infiltration shows an intensity increase of up to ∼13x and an increase in red shift with increasing infiltration temperature, attributed to the variations in the reaction mechanism to form the hybrid modification observed through the spectroscopy analysis.
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection during pregnancy may have serious consequences like fetal anaemia, hydrops fetalis, and fetal loss. Since epidemiological data on B19V infection are generally lacking in Sudan, the current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of B19V in Sudanese pregnant women. Five hundred women, attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum state between November 2008 and March 2009, were enrolled and screened for B19V IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. The study revealed a B19V IgG seroprevalence of 61·4%, with one subject positive for IgM. B19V DNA was not detected by PCR in any of the tested individuals. B19V IgG seroprevalence was significantly correlated with multigravidity (P = 0·046). Our data showed that B19V infection is prevalent in Sudan and we recommend further studies in Sudanese women, particularly in those with complications and adverse outcomes of pregnancy.