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The increased incidence of glyphosate-resistant weeds has led to an exponential increase in the use of glufosinate on glufosinate-resistant corn, cotton, and soybean crops. Field experiments were conducted in 2021 and 2022 to evaluate peanut response to glufosinate at 25 and 60 d after planting, corresponding to vegetative (V3) and reproductive (R4) growth stages, at 1.2, 4.7, 18.9, 75.5, and 302 g ai ha−1 representing 1/514 to 1/2 of the labeled rate of 604 g ha−1. Peanut injury and canopy and yield reductions from glufosinate were <10% when applied at 1.2, 4.7, and 18.9 g ha−1. However, at 75.5 and 302 g ha−1 peanut injury ranged from 24% to 72% at the V3 exposure timing and 33% to 54% at the R4 exposure timing. Similarly, glufosinate applied at 75.5 and 302 g ha−1 reduced peanut canopy width by 10% to 23% at the V3 exposure timing and by 43% to 57% at the R4 exposure timing. Averaged across exposure timing, peanut yield was reduced by 15% and 61% when glufosinate was applied at 75.5 and 302 g ha−1, respectively. Averaged across rates, peanut yield reduction was 18% at the V3 exposure timing, with glufosinate at 298 g ha−1 required to cause an estimated 50% reduction in yield. Peanut yield was reduced by 20% when glufosinate was applied at the R3 peanut growth stage, whereas glufosinate applied at 243 g ha-1 caused an estimated 50% reduction in yield. There was no difference in normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) values between untreated plants and peanut exposed to glufosinate at 1.2, 4.7, and 18.9 g ha−1. However, peanut exposed to glufosinate at 75.5 and 302 g ha−1 was distinguished from untreated plants with lower NDVI values. Based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, the best timing for assessing potential yield reduction based on injury was between 2 and 4 wk after treatment.
False smut of rice is an emerging disease and caused severe damage to hybrids and inbred rice cultivars grown in Asian countries. The objective of the study was to quantify of false smut resistance and identification of donors in some of the advanced breeding lines and rice varieties developed at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. A total of 31 genotypes were evaluated for three years in two planting date per year under field conditions. The lines were categorized into short, medium and long durations based on days to flowering. False smut was quantified using different disease variables such as per cent infected panicle, number of false smut ball per plant and disease score. Disease variables were significantly and positively correlated to each other. The infected panicle ranged 0.0–75.4% was observed among the genotypes. Three advanced lines namely RGS-2 (short), RGM-3 (medium) and RGL-3 (long) showed the lowest ranged 0.0–4.9% of infected panicle as compared to susceptible checks (47.7–75.4%). The genotypes were divided into five groups according to a component of resistance. The third group had the lowest average values (3.3%) of infected panicle as compared to the fifth group with the highest values (36.2%) of the infected panicle. The overall trend of disease variables was higher in short duration genotypes as compared to medium and long durations. Weather factors such as rain fall, rainy days and high relative humidity during the flowering period were favourable for disease development. The genotypes with lower disease variables could be utilized in diseases resistance breeding programme.
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