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Studies on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) related to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in Asia are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of hospitalised CAP and PP after PCV13 was introduced in Japan. This observational hospital-based surveillance study included children aged ⩽15 years, admitted to hospitals in and around Chiba City, Japan. Participants had bacterial pneumonia based on a positive blood or sputum culture for bacterial pathogens. Serotype and antibiotic-susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with bacterial pneumonia were assessed. The CAP hospitalisation rate per 1000 child-years was 17.7, 14.3 and 9.7 in children aged <5 years and 1.18, 2.64 and 0.69 in children aged 5–15 years in 2008, 2012 and 2018, respectively. There was a 45% and 41% reduction in CAP hospitalisation rates, between the pre-PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively. Significant reductions occurred in the proportion of CAP due to PP and PCV13 serotypes. Conversely, no change occurred in the proportion of CAP caused by H. influenzae. The incidence of hospitalised CAP in children aged ⩽15 years was significantly reduced after the introduction of PCV13 in Japan. Continuous surveillance is necessary to detect emerging PP serotypes.
Silicon has attracted particular attention as a potential high capacity material for lithium based batteries. However, the application of Si-based electrodes remains challenging, in major part due to its significant irreversible energy loss during cycling. Here isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) is demonstrated to be a precise and operando characterization method for tracking a battery's thermal behaviour and deconvoluting the contributions from electrochemical polarization, entropy change, and parasitic reactions. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) further elucidate the Si reactivity in conjunction with the IMC.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
Growth of GaN on Si(111) and Ge coated Si(111) using pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) process is reported. GaN was deposited on Si(111) and Ge/Si(111) at 600°C in an N2 environment without any surface pre-treatment such as pre-nitridation. X-ray diffraction confirmed that c-plane oriented GaN was grown. Photoluminescence showed near-band-edge emission, the intensity of which was improved with hydrogen passivation. Electrical characterization showed n-type conductivity with room temperature electron mobilities in the range of 300 cm2/V-sec.
This study examined whether the occurrence of late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma can be predicted by evaluating HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) expression in the primary lesion.
A case–control study was conducted. The cases comprised 10 patients with late neck metastasis. The controls consisted of 16 patients without recurrence. All were examined immunohistochemically for HMGB1 protein expression. The odds ratio for late neck metastasis in relation to HMGB1 was estimated.
Results for HMGB1 were dichotomised into positive staining scores (score, 5–7) and negative scores (0–4). Six cases (60 per cent) and four controls (25 per cent) were HMGB1-positive. Although no significant result was seen, compared with HMGB1-negative patients the odds ratio for late neck metastasis in HMGB1-positive patients was 3.8 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.6–26.5) after adjusting for other factors.
In the present study, immunohistochemical study of HMGB1 in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma did not appear to be very useful for predicting occult neck metastasis. Further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between HMGB1 expression and late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Field surveys of supraglacial ponds on debris-covered glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya clarify that ice-cliff calving occurs when the fetch exceeds ∼80 m. Thermal undercutting is important for calving processes in glacial lakes, and subaqueous ice melt rates during the melt and freeze seasons are therefore estimated under simple geomorphologic conditions. In particular, we focus on the differences between valley wind-driven water currents in various fetches during the melt season. Our results demonstrate that the subaqueous ice melt rate exceeds the ice-cliff melt rate when the fetch is >20 m and water temperature is 2–4°C. Calculations suggest the onset of calving due to thermal undercutting is controlled by water currents driven by winds at the surface of the lake, which develop with expanding water surface.
Stability of Pd-Co-Ni-Cu-P metallic glass was investigated in terms of free energy using first principle cluster calculations, thermal analysis, and photoemission spectroscopy measurements. We found that the internal energy of the Pd-based metallic glasses is dominated by the electronic structure near the Fermi level. The analyses on the electronic structure and local atomic arrangements indicate that the substitution of cobalt or a hypothetical atom Co0.5Cu0.5 for nickel in the Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass decreases the free energy of the Pd-Ni-P metallic glass by increasing entropy without altering significantly internal energy. On the basis of the idea mentioned above, we prepared Pd28Co24Ni24P24, Pd25Co25Ni25P25 and Pd40Co40/3Ni40/3Cu40/3P20 metallic glasses. These metallic glasses certainly showed the nearly highest TX, which directly reflect the activation energy against crystallization, among the Pd-based metallic glasses ever reported.
The effects of hot carriers on the transfer characteristics of self-aligned and offset-gated polysilicon thin-film transistors (TFTs), with channel length L = 10 μm and offset length ΔL = 2 μm, are investigated. In the self-aligned device, the on-state current is substantially reduced, whereas the subthreshold slope remains almost unaffected. In the offset gated device, the transfer characteristic is shifted first positively and then negatively, the on-state current is still substantially reduced and well-defined kinks are formed in the subthreshold region. The device degradation is found to become more pronounced in the offset gated device. A model explaining the post-stress performance of the offset-gated device is presented.
The ability of a poly(phenylene ethynylene) conjugated polyelectrolyte to detect a small molecule quencher in the solid state was assessed by coating the polymer onto a plastic-backed, non-fluorescent, silica-gel TLC plate. The efficiency of the emission quenching process was quantified by noting the resulting loss of emission with increasing quencher concentration, in accordance with the Stern-Volmer relation. The emission quenching induced by the addition of the analyte occurred with Stern-Volmer constants in the range of 103 M−1.
The observability of hydrogen molecules in absorption was investigated for infrared lines against
bright infrared sources.
The absorption efficiency of the hydrogen molecules becomes comparable with or
larger than that of the dust grains in the metal-poor condition expected in
the early Universe. If we can use bright infrared continuum sources behind
the molecular gas clouds, the absorption measurement of the hydrogen molecules
will be an important technique to explore the primordial gas clouds that are
contracting into first-generation objects.
A combinatorial material synthesis with temperature gradient heating system was employed to optimizing growth parameters for oxide growth on Si substrate. From the obtained results, it was found the dielectric property depends on the growth temperature as well as the composition. The interface structures were investigated by high resolution electron microscopy with a series of specimens fabricated by micro sampling method. The results showed that amorphous oxide region and SiO2 layer were formed at the interface. It was speculated that the amorphous oxide region contributed to the reduction of the dielectric property. To avoid the amorphous and SiO2 formation at the oxide/Si interface, a few kinds of intermediate layers were inserted and tested to find the possibility of abrupt interface formation.
A series of MHfO3: Tm (M =Ca, Sr and Ba) composition spread films and superlattices (SLs) were quickly fabricated on SrTiO3 (001) substrate in the molecular layer-by-layer growth using combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) monitoring. Crystal structures and luminescence properties of composition-spread and SLs were evaluated by the concurrent X-ray diffractometer and cathode luminescence (CL), respectively. CL properties of the films were found strongly dependent on their composition and stacking sequence. Possible effect of the stress due to the film-substrate interaction on the CL property is discussed.
Magnetic films for miniaturization of planar inductors operating at GHz frequencies require high resistivity and high ferro-magnetic resonance frequency. Y type magnetoplumbite Ba2Co2Fe12O22(Co2Y) is a candidate material to meet such requirements because it has about 10 &m resistivity and resonance frequency higher than 2 GHz. Recently we succeeded in the fabrication of Co2Y epitaxial thin film on MgAl2O4 substrate by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition technique . Here, we report on the magnetic and dielectric properties of this film. The DC resistivity of the film was 7.5 &m. The dielectric constant at 1.25 GHz was measured by a microwave microscope to be 11.0. An easy axis coercive force and saturation magnetization were about 145 Oe and 2000 Gauss respectively, being close to those of bulk sample. Furthermore, the magnetic micro domain structures of Co2Y epitaxial thin films were observed by a scanning SQUID microscope.