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The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
This paper deals with a lithium/tin combined target to increase the conversion efficiency of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) of 13.5 nm emission from laser-produced plasma. The bilayer target of glass/lithium (20 nm)/tin (50 nm) exhibits a sharp and strong emission in comparison with a Sn bulk target. The reverse coating of glass/tin/lithium was unstable and EUV could not be observed. By using nano-porous SnO2 and an electrochemical deposition of lithium, nano-structured lithium/tin composite was prepared, and was stable without deliquescence of lithium.
Direct-drive implosion experiments on the GEKKO XII laser (9 kJ, 0.5 μm, 2 ns) with deuterium and tritium (DT) exchanged plastic hollow shell targets demonstrated fuel areal densities (ρR) of ˜0.1 g/cm2 and fuel densities of ˜600 times liquid density at fuel temperatures of ˜0.3 keV. (The density and ρR values refer only to DT and do not include carbons in the plastic targets.) These values are to be compared with thermonuclear ignition conditions, i.e., fuel densities of 500–1000 times liquid density, fuel areal densities greater than 0.3 g/cm2, and fuel temperatures greater than 5 keV. The irradiation nonuniformity in these experiments was significantly reduced to a level of <5% in root mean square by introducing random-phase plates. The target irregularity was controlled to a 1% level. The fuel ρR was directly measured with the neutron activation of Si, which was originally compounded in the plastic targets. The fuel densities were estimated from the ρR values using the mass conservation relation, where the ablated mass was separately measured using the time-dependent X-ray emission from multilayer targets. Although the observed densities were in agreement with one-dimensional calculation results with convergence ratios of 25–30, the observed neutron yields were significantly lower than those of the calculations. This suggests the implosion uniformity is not sufficient to create a hot spark in which most neutrons should be generated.
Recent direct-drive implosion experiments on the GEKKO XII laser with plastic hollow shell targets demonstrated compressed densities of ∼600 g/cm3 (∼600 times liquid density) at a temperature of ∼0.3 keV. The highly compressed core plasmas are indicated to be strongly coupled (average Coulomb energy/thermal energy ≈5) and partially degenerate (thermal energy/Fermi energy ≈0.3). The diagnostic method based on the secondary nuclear fusion reactions is presented to prove the electron degeneracy in the highly compressed core plasma. The yield ratio of the secondary DT neutrons to the primary DD neutrons in such highly compressed core plasmas was calculated with inclusion of the strong Coulomb-coupling effects, the varied degrees of the electron degeneracy, and the electronic shielding effects. It was found in our calculations that there is a significant dependence of the yield ratio on the compressed core density. For the plastic targets at the electron temperature of ∼0.3 keV, the yield ratio increases from 9 × 10−4 to 8 × 10−3 for densities from 10 to 1000 g/cm3. The preliminary experiments using deuterated plastic hollow shell targets suggested that the enhancement of the yield ratio provided evidence of the electron degeneracy.
The wavelength scalings of soft X-ray and hot electron generation efficiencies were studied using 1·05, 0·53, 0·35 and 0·26 μm lasers. A coupling efficiency from absorbed laser energy to compressed fuel core of 4.5% was obtained by using the GEKKO XII green laser.
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