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In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism to compensate for gravity and the gripping force in a hand-arm robot. This mechanism compensates for the gravitational torque produced by an object gripped by the hand-arm robot. The gripping force required for the robot hand to prevent the object from dropping is also simultaneously compensated for. This mechanism requires only one actuator placed on the shoulder part of the robot. Therefore, this mechanism can reduce the torque requirement of joint actuators and lower the weight of the robot. The gear ratio of the reduction gears in each robot joint can then also be reduced. These advantages are critical for future robots that perform tasks in unstructured environments and collaborate with humans. We carried out experiments with a 6-DoF robot arm having a 1-DoF gripper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
Ti/Al ohmic contact with an extremely low specific contact resistance has been formed by the deposition of Ti and Al films on Si+ lanted GaN. The ohmic contact formed by annealing at 600 o C of Ti film with a thickness of 50 nm and Al film with a thickness of 200 nm reveals the good smooth surface and uniform structure as compare to those of contacts formed above 700 °C, which is correlated to whether the Al-Ti alloy is melted during the annealing of ohmic contact or not. The specific contact resistance of 2 × 10-6Ω-cm2 is obtained for Si+ implanted GaN with a dose of 5 × 1013 cm-2. As Si ion dose increases to 5 × 1014 /cm2, the specific contact resistance is reduced to 2 × 10-8 Ω-cm2. It is revealed that the selective doping at high impurity concentration in the surface region by Si+ implantation is useful to reduce the contact resistance for Ti/Al contact to GaN.
The effects of curing conditions on the chloride permeability of concrete with various replacements of Portland cement by a flyash and a blastfurnace slag was investigated. In order to relate the porosity and pore size distribution of concretes to their chloride permeability, mercury intrusion porosimetry measurements were also conducted. The results showed that exposure of concretes to a relatively low humidity at early ages increased their chloride permeability. It was also found that the chloride permeability of concrete increased proportionally with increasing volume of pores larger than 0.1 μm in diameter.
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