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Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in elderly people. However, the associated risk factors have not been completely clarified. We examined possible risk factors associated with sleep disturbance in a community-based Japanese cohort study.
1521 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were selected from a consecutive series at a cohort study from 2016 to 2018 in Arao city, where located at south part of Japan. In this survey, the clinical valuables were collected as follows: age, sex, occupational status, education, lifestyle information, medical history, EuroQoL(EQ)-5D (a score of health-related quality of life [QOL]), Barthel index (a score of performance in activities of daily living), a score of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and a score of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Sleep disturbance was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (when the global score was 6 or over, sleep disturbance was determined to be present). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical valuables and sleep disturbance. This research was supported by AMED (Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development) under Grant Number JP18dk0207025h0003 and has been approved by the research ethics committee of Kumamoto University. Informed consent was obtained from all participants and their family members.
Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that Parkinson disease (Odds ratio[OR]=5.59), living alone (OR=1.93), liver disease (OR=1.89), hyperlipidemia (OR=1.36), higher score of GDS (OR=1.14), lower scores of both EQ-5D index (OR=1.11) and Barthel index (OR=1.03) were significantly associated as risk factors with sleep disturbance. Unexpectedly, lower score of MMSE was not a significant risk factor.
These results suggest that several physical illnesses, solitude, depressive symptoms and lower QOL, but not cognitive impairment, might be crucial risk factors associated with sleep disturbance in elderly population.
In this study, we examine whether a pathology clinic, conducted by pathologists, a novel medical tool that provides an explanation for the diagnosis of a cancer, can influence the mental state and adjustment of breast cancer patients.
We created a paper-based questionnaire and interviewed targeted breast cancer patients, who had undergone radical surgery, before and after they visited the clinic.
We found that there may be increased motivation for treatment, a greater sense of reassurance, and reduced anxiety (as indicated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) in the group that attended the clinic.
Significance of Results:
Our results suggest that visiting the pathology clinic may reduce anxiety over the short term. On the other hand, Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Anxious Preoccupation scores were significantly higher in this group as well, both before and after attendance, compared to the group that did not attend. The attending group may have reduced anxiety by such actions as collecting medical data on the cause of their anxiety and adopting healthier behaviors. Our findings suggest that appropriate emotional support and provision of medical information are very important in dealing with patient anxiety.
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