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Sc-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on Corning 1737 glasses by using RF magnetron co-sputtering system with Sc2O3 and ZnO targets. Different sputtering powers of Sc2O3 target and post annealing of 550°C for 2 hr were investigated to understand the effect on microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Sc-doped ZnO thin films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the Sc-doped films have (002) preferred orientation. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) show that the Sc-doped ZnO thin films have columnar structure before and after annealing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface measurement also shows that the surface roughness of the films was smoother when the Sc2O3 sputtering power increased. The optical transmission of as deposited Sc-doped films in the visible region all exceeded 80%, and increased about 3% after samples annealed. Electrical resistivity measurement reveals that the as-deposited Sc-doped ZnO thin films had lowest resistivity of 0.97 Ω cm when the Sc2O3 sputtering power was 125W. After annealing the lowest resistivity decreased to 9.85 × 10−2 Ω cm in which 200W of the Sc2O3 sputtering power was applied.
Characterization of the TiN coatings oxidized in air at temperatures at 600 and 700°C for 30 min was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). TiN thin films with a Ti interlayer were prepared by hollow cathode discharge ion plating on AISI 304 stainless steel. Both XRD and TEM results show that the TiN coatings and Ti interlayer have columnar structure with (111) and (0002) preferred orientations, respectively. AFM results show the existence of pinholes on the surface of specimens due to electropolishing process of the steel substrate, and the surface roughness (Ra) changes from 3.5 nm for the as-deposited specimen to 11.6 nm after oxidation at 700°. After oxidation, the TiO2 oxide layer formed on the specimen surface was porous and retained the columnar structure as the original TiN coating. The microstructure of the Ti interlayer gradually changed from columnar to polycrystalline structure due to grain growth. The Auger elemental depth profiling indicated that interdiffusion of the Ti interlayer with steel substrate had occurred during the oxidation process.
This article describes a new method by which azimuth and the instantaneous latitude of a meridian-prime vertical-transit instrument can be determined absolutely in mid-and low- latitude areas, and discusses some experimental observations obtained on a remodeled ZEISS transit instrument. Requirements for the development of a new type of transit circle along the lines of this new method are also presented.
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