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This study aimed to investigate the influences of age, education, and gender on the two total scores (TS-I and TS-II) of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) and to provide normative information based on an analysis for a large number of elderly persons with a wide range of educational levels.
In the study, 1,987 community-dwelling healthy volunteers (620 males and 1,367 females; 50–90 years of age; and zero to 25 years of education) were included. People with serious neurological, medical, and psychiatric disorders (including dementia) were excluded. All participants underwent the CERAD-NP assessment. TS-I was generated by summing raw scores from the CERAD-NP subtests, excluding Mini-Mental State Examination and Constructional Praxis (CP) recall subtests. TS-II was calculated by adding CP recall score to TS-I.
Both TS-I and TS-II were significantly influenced by demographic variables. Education accounted for the greatest proportion of score variance. Interaction effect between age and gender was found. Based on the results obtained, normative data of the CERAD-NP total scores were stratified by age (six overlapping tables), education (four strata), and gender.
The normative information will be very useful for better interpretation of the CERAD-NP total scores in various clinical and research settings and for comparing individuals’ performance of the battery across countries.
Self-aligned silicide (salicide) formation of epitaxial CoSi2, using a Co/Ti bilayer, on linear oxide (SiO2) patterned (100)Si substrate has been investigated. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 550°C resulted in the lateral encroachment of silicide in the Si under the edge of the oxide. After RTA at 900°C, even though an epitaxial CoSi2 layer was formed on the Si substrate, defects such as lateral encroachment and voids were generated under the edge of the oxide. It was found that such defects lead to device failure due to the deterioration of the gate oxide and the shallow junction.
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