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Vitamin D is engaged in various neural processes, with low vitamin D linked to depression and cognitive dysfunction. There are gender differences in depression and vitamin D level. However, the relationship between depression, gender, vitamin D, cognition, and brain function has yet to be determined.
One hundred and twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 119 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) was calculated to assess brain function. Serum concentration of vitamin D (SCVD) and cognition (i.e. prospective memory and sustained attention) were also measured.
We found a significant group-by-gender interaction effect on SCVD whereby MDD patients showed a reduction in SCVD relative to controls in females but not males. Concurrently, there was a female-specific association of SCVD with cognition and MDD-related fALFF alterations in widespread brain regions. Remarkably, MDD- and SCVD-related fALFF changes mediated the relation between SCVD and cognition in females.
Apart from providing insights into the neural mechanisms by which low vitamin D contributes to cognitive impairment in MDD in a gender-dependent manner, these findings might have clinical implications for assignment of female patients with MDD and cognitive dysfunction to adjuvant vitamin D supplementation therapy, which may ultimately advance a precision approach to personalized antidepressant choice.
This paper investigates the monolithic edge-cladding process for the elliptical disk of N31-type Nd-doped phosphate laser glass, which will be utilized under liquid cooling conditions for high-power laser systems. The thermal stress, interface bubbles and residual reflectivity, which are due to high-temperature casting and bonding during the monolithic edge-cladding process, are simulated and determined. The applied mould is optimized to a rectangular cavity mould, and the casting temperature is optimized to 1000°C. The resulting lower bubble density makes the mean residual reflectivity as low as 6.75 × 10−5, which is enough to suppress the amplified spontaneous emission generated in the Nd-glass disk, and the resulting maximum optical retardation is converged to 10.2–13.3 nm/cm, which is a favourable base for fine annealing to achieve the stress specification of less than or equal to 5 nm/cm. After fine annealing at the optimized 520°C, the maximum optical retardation is as low as 4.8 nm/cm, and the minimum transmitted wavefront peak-to-valley value is 0.222 wavelength (632.8 nm). An N31 elliptical disk with the size of 194 mm × 102 mm × 40 mm can be successfully cladded by the optimized monolithic edge-cladding process, whose edge-cladded disk with the size of 200 mm × 108 mm × 40 mm can achieve laser gain one-third higher than that of an N21-type disk of the same size.
Social cognition has not previously been assessed in treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia, in patients over 60 years of age, or in patients with less than 5 years of schooling.
We revised a commonly used measure of social cognition, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), by expanding the instructions, using both self-completion and interviewer-completion versions (for illiterate respondents), and classifying each test administration as ‘successfully completed’ or ‘incomplete’. The revised instrument (RMET-CV-R) was administered to 233 treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia (UT), 154 treated controls with chronic schizophrenia (TC), and 259 healthy controls (HC) from rural communities in China.
In bivariate and multivariate analyses, successful completion rates and RMET-CV-R scores (percent correct judgments about emotion exhibited in 70 presented slides) were highest in HC, intermediate in TC, and lowest in UT (adjusted completion rates, 97.0, 72.4, and 49.9%, respectively; adjusted RMET-CV-R scores, 45.4, 38.5, and 34.6%, respectively; all p < 0.02). Stratified analyses by the method of administration (self-completed v. interviewer-completed) and by education and age (‘educated-younger’ v. ‘undereducated-older’) show the same relationship between groups (i.e. NC>TC>UT), though not all differences remain statistically significant.
We find poorer social cognition in treatment-naive than in treated patients with chronic schizophrenia. The discriminant validity of RMET-CV-R in undereducated, older patients demonstrates the feasibility of administering revised versions of RMET to patients who may otherwise be considered ineligible due to education or age by changing the method of test administration and carefully assessing respondents' ability to complete the task successfully.
Kawasaki disease is a type of acute febrile rash disease that is common in children and is characterised by primary lesions of systemic middle and small vasculitis, which can lead to coronary artery lesions. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), one of the most important antioxidases in the human body, plays a key role in maintaining the balance of free radicals in the human body. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) (rs4880 and rs5746136) in the MnSOD gene were related to oxidative stress disease. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible relationship between MnSOD gene polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease susceptibility.
This study included 100 Kawasaki disease children and 102 healthy children. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4880 and rs5746136) were detected by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing.
There was a significant difference in both the genotype frequency (χ2 = 10.805, p = 0.005) and the allele frequency (χ2 = 7.948, p = 0.005) of rs5746136 between the Kawasaki disease group and the control group. Children with the A allele had a 0.558 times lower risk of Kawasaki disease than those without the A allele (χ2 = 7.948, p = 0.005, odds ratio = 0.558, 95% confidence interval = 0.371–0.838). There was no significant difference in the genotype and gene frequencies of rs5746136 between the Kawasaki disease-coronary artery lesion and Kawasaki disease-without coronary artery lesion groups (p > 0.05), and there was no significant difference in the rs4880 genotype and allele frequencies between the Kawasaki disease and healthy control groups or between the Kawasaki disease-coronary artery lesion and Kawasaki disease-without coronary artery lesions groups (p > 0.05).
This study provides evidence supporting an association between MnSOD gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to Kawasaki disease. The genotype AA and the allele A of the MnSOD gene locus rs5746136 were risk factors for Kawasaki disease.
This article reviews the advancements and prospects of liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and analysis methods in understanding the nucleation, growth, etching, and assembly dynamics of nanocrystals. The bonding of atoms into nanoscale crystallites produces materials with nonadditive properties unique to their size and geometry. The recent application of in situ liquid cell TEM to nanocrystal development has initiated a paradigm shift, (1) from trial-and-error synthesis to a mechanistic understanding of the “synthetic reactions” responsible for the emergence of crystallites from a disordered soup of reactive species (e.g., ions, atoms, molecules) and shape-defined growth or etching; and (2) from post-processing characterization of the nanocrystals’ superlattice assemblies to in situ imaging and mapping of the fundamental interactions and energy landscape governing their collective phase behaviors. Imaging nanocrystal formation and assembly processes on the single-particle level in solution immediately impacts many existing fields, including materials science, nanochemistry, colloidal science, biology, environmental science, electrochemistry, mineralization, soft condensed-matter physics, and device fabrication.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
Although alterations in the dendritic spine density in the brain regions may play a role in the stress-induced depression-like phenotype, the precise mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to investigate the role of spine density in the brain regions after chronic social defeat stress (CSDS).
We examined dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of susceptible and resilient mice after CSDS.
Spine density in the prelimbic area of mPFC, CA3, and DG in the susceptible group, but not resilient group, was significantly lower than control group. In contrast, spine density in the NAc and VTA in the susceptible group, but not resilient group, was significantly higher than control group.
The results suggest that regional differences in spine density may contribute to resilience versus susceptibility in mice subjected to CSDS.
The temporal dynamics of ciliate community structure in a southern Chinese shrimp aquaculture facility were investigated during the period June–September 2012. A total of 53 species belonging to 37 genera and 17 orders were recorded based on analyses of eight samples. Ciliate abundance peaked between 16 August and 14 September 2012, while the maximum number of species occurred on 26 June 2012. Clear temporal patterns were observed in the ciliate community structure. The patterns of succession of the 10 most abundant species were consistent with the results of a Canonical Analysis of Principal coordinates (CAP) analysis. Correlation analyses showed that these patterns of succession were related to temporal changes in environmental variables. In summary, the results demonstrate that the ciliate community responds predictably to environmental variations and recovers from shrimp cultivation.
Picoeukaryotes (<2–3 μm) perform key roles for the functioning of marine ecosystems, but little is known regarding the composition and diversity of picoeukaryotes in aquaculture areas. In this study, the Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing the V4 variable region within the 18S rDNA gene to analyse genetic diversity and relative abundance of picoeukaryotic communities in the Qinhuangdao scallop cultivation area of the Bohai Sea. The community was dominated by three super groups, the alveolates (54%), stramenopiles (41%) and chlorophytes (3%), and three groups, dinoflagellates (54%), pelagomonadales (40%) and prasinophytes (3%). Furthermore, a contrasting station with open water away from the eutrophic aquaculture area was chosen. The communities collected from the two stations exhibited significant differences, with higher diversity in the aquaculture area. These results provide the first snapshot of the picoeukaryotic diversity in surface waters of the Qinhuangdao scallop cultivation area, and basic data for future studies on picoeukaryote community in an aquaculture region.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
Colonial Microcystis aeruginosa were obtained when the unicellular algae were exposed to flagellate Ochromonas sp. filtrate. To investigate the benefit of this morphological change, flagellates were added into cultures of unicellular and colonial M. aeruginosa, respectively. The clearance rates of flagellates on algae were markedly decreased when they were cultivated with induced colonial M. aeruginosa. This result indicated that colony formation in M. aeruginosa was a predator-induced defense, which could reduce predation risk from flagellate. The increased content of soluble extracellular polysaccharide (sEPS) and bound extracellular polysaccharide (bEPS) may play an important role in adhering M. aeruginosa cells together to form colonies. The decrease of ΦPS II and the increase of sinking rates of induced colonial M. aeruginosa showed that the costs of grazed-induced colony formation in M. aeruginosa may reflect in the photosystem II efficiency, and in the sinking rates.
We investigated crustacean zooplankton communities and their relationships to environmental factors in 13 lakes of Yunnan-Guizhou plateau to determine whether there is a consistent relationship between trophic indicators and crustacean zooplankton biomass or size structure. The lakes showed a wide range of trophic status, with total phosphorus (TP) ranging from 0.013 to 0.268 mg.L−1, and chlorophyll a from 0.9 to 76.26 μg.L−1. Continuous stocking with exotic planktivorous fish had taken place on a wide scale in these plateau lakes. About 36 species of Crustacea were found, of which Cladocera were represented by 20 taxa (12 genera), and Copepoda by 16 taxa (13 genera). Canonical correspondence analysis partitioned these species into two clusters. Physicochemical features and food-webs of different lakes seemed to be the key factors determining zooplankton species composition and distribution patterns. Between the 13 lakes, there was no significant relationship between cladocerans and chlorophyll a suggesting phytoplankton biomass was little controlled by macrozooplankton. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and copepods suggested the high copepods biomass or size structure caused by the invasion of exotic planktivorous fish had a negative effect on water quality.
In this paper we introduce the concepts of instantaneous reversibility and instantaneous entropy production rate for inhomogeneous Markov chains with denumerable state spaces. The following statements are proved to be equivalent: the inhomogeneous Markov chain is instantaneously reversible; it is in detailed balance; its entropy production rate vanishes. In particular, for a time-periodic birth-death chain, which can be regarded as a simple version of a physical model (Brownian motors), we prove that its rotation number is 0 when it is instantaneously reversible or periodically reversible. Hence, in our model of Markov chains, the directed transport phenomenon of Brownian motors can occur only in nonequilibrium and irreversible systems.
In this paper, we address the positive recurrent diffusion process obtained by winding the solutions of a general stochastic system of coupled oscillators along several directions. Two kinds of quantities—the entropy production rate and the rotation numbers, which describe the non-equilibrium of the system from totally different points of view—are calculated and related through an explicit formula.