Clinical neuroimaging is increasingly being used in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and has become one of the most important paraclinical tools in the diagnosis of dementia. According to current guidelines, neuroimaging, preferably magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), should be performed at least once during the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected or definite dementia. MRI is helpful in identifying or excluding potentially treatable causes of dementia; however, these account only for a small proportion of dementias. In addition, MRI is able to support the clinical diagnosis in a memory clinic setting by identifying certain patterns of atrophy and vascular damage. Visual rating scales are well-established methods in the clinical routine for the assessment and quantification of regional/global cortical atrophy, hippocampal atrophy and vascular damage. In addition, MRI is able to detect certain aspects of pathology associated with dementia, such as cerebral microbleeds which are related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Alzheimer pathology. This review paper aims to give an overview of the application of structural MRI in the diagnostic procedure for memory clinic patients in terms of excluding and supporting the diagnosis of various diseases associated with dementia.