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Lake Johnston cirque contains some of the best subalpine rainforest in Tasmania. Pollen from the sediments shows Lagarostrobos franklinii, which presently reaches 1040 m, may be a glacial relict. Nothofagus cunninghamii–Nothofagus gunnii subalpine rainforest developed between 9000 and 6000 14C yr B.P., with a maximum at 8700 14C yr B.P. After 6000 14C yr B.P. Nothofagus gunnii became more important, and from 3600 14C yr B.P. sclerophyll and heath components increased. Partial burning of the catchment occurred periodically. Early Holocene climate was warmer and wetter than late Holocene climate. The vegetation and climate changes are similar to those recorded from western South Island New Zealand and Chile. Radiocarbon dates give a sedimentation rate of 0.43 mm/yr. Cores are correlated by magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic ages are assigned by matching with the 14C-dated secular variation master curve for southeastern Australia. Magnetic ages are consistent with the 14C chronology when the former are adjusted by 350 years.
We present a compilation of tropospheric 14CO2 for the period 1950–2010, based on published radiocarbon data from selected records of atmospheric CO2 sampling and tree-ring series. This compilation is a new version of the compilation by Hua and Barbetti (2004) and consists of yearly summer data sets for zonal, hemispheric, and global levels of atmospheric 14C. In addition, compiled (and extended) monthly data sets for 5 atmospheric zones (3 in the Northern Hemisphere and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere) are reported. The annual data sets are for use in regional and global carbon model calculations, while the extended monthly data sets serve as calibration curves for 14C dating of recent, short-lived terrestrial organic materials.
Meticulous survey of the banks, channels and reservoirs at Angkor shows them to have been part of a large scale water management network instigated in the ninth century AD. Water collected from the hills was stored and could have been distributed for a wide variety of purposes including flood control, agriculture and ritual while a system of overflows and bypasses carried surplus water away to the lake, the Tonle Sap, to the south. The network had a history of numerous additions and modifications. Earlier channels both distributed and disposed of water. From the twelfth century onwards the large new channels primarily disposed of water to the lake. The authors here present and document the latest definitive map of the water network of Angkor.
Investigating the use of land during the medieval period at the celebrated ceremonial area of Angkor, the authors took a soil column over 2.5m deep from the inner moat of the Bakong temple. The dated pollen sequence showed that the temple moat was dug in the eighth century AD and that the agriculture of the immediate area subsequently flourished. In the tenth century AD agriculture declined and the moat became choked with water-plants. It was at this time, according to historical documents, that a new centre at Phnom Bakeng was founded by Yasovarman I.
Known-age corals from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean, have been analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for radiocarbon to determine marine reservoir age corrections. The ΔR value for the Cocos (Keeling) Islands is 66 ± 12 yr based on the analyses undertaken for this study. When our AMS and previously published dates for Cocos are averaged, they yield a ΔR of 64 ± 15 yr. This is a significant revision of an earlier estimate of the ΔR value for the Cocos (Keeling) Islands of 186 ± 66 yr (Toggweiler et al. 1991). The (revised) lower ΔR for the Cocos (Keeling) Islands is consistent with GEOSECS 14C data for the Indian Ocean, and previously published bomb 14C data for the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Cocos Islands. The revised ΔR is also close to values for the eastern Indian Ocean and adjacent seas. These suggest surface waters that reach the Cocos Islands might be partly derived from the far western Pacific, via the Indonesian throughflow, and might not be influenced by the southeast flow from the Arabian Sea.
Comprehensive published radiocarbon data from selected atmospheric records, tree rings, and recent organic matter were analyzed and grouped into 4 different zones (three for the Northern Hemisphere and one for the whole Southern Hemisphere). These 14C data for the summer season of each hemisphere were employed to construct zonal, hemispheric, and global data sets for use in regional and global carbon model calculations including calibrating and comparing carbon cycle models. In addition, extended monthly atmospheric 14C data sets for 4 different zones were compiled for age calibration purposes. This is the first time these data sets were constructed to facilitate the dating of recent organic material using the bomb 14C curves. The distribution of bomb 14C reflects the major zones of atmospheric circulation.
Annual tree rings from Thailand were analyzed by radiocarbon AMS for AD 1938–1954. The results showed no significant depletion in atmospheric 14C over Thailand during the pre-bomb period, even though the air mass to Thailand during the growing season of tree rings is transported over a potentially significant source of oceanic 14C-depleted CO2, out-gassing in the northern Indian Ocean. When compared with Washington and Chile for different periods from the 17th century to AD 1954, Thailand appears to have the characteristics of Southern Hemisphere 14C. This supports our previous finding that Thailand was strongly influenced by the entrainment of Southern Hemisphere air parcels in the southwest Asian monsoon (Hua et al. 2004). For Thailand, this effect is much stronger than the reduction of atmospheric 14C in association with CO2 out-gassing in the northern Indian Ocean.
We have analyzed by radiocarbon 27 consecutive single rings, starting from AD 1952, of a preliminarily cross-dated section (DFR 021) of Pinus radiata, which grew in Armidale, northern New South Wales, Australia. The bomb 14C results suggested the possibility of 2 false rings, and, consequently, 2 misidentified rings in the preliminary count for this section. This possibility was supported by a better ring-width correlation between the revised DFR 021 count and other Pinus radiata chronologies in the study region. This indicated that bomb 14C is a useful tool to complement the standard techniques of dendrochronology in tree species where annual rings are not always clearly defined.
Existing data and theory do not support a recent assertion that upwelling of old carbon has led to systematically 100–300 yr too old radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean region. Similarly, the prehistoric tree-ring record produced over 3 decades by the Aegean Dendrochronology Project is shown to provide robust, well-replicated data, contrary to a recent unfounded assertion. 14C and dendrochronology provide an accurate and precise chronometric framework for the Mediterranean region.
We present results of 14C dating of several tree-ring series from the Late Glacial and Early Holocene, analyzed at the Heidelberg University radiocarbon laboratory. Although these are floating series, they contribute high-resolution information about the variability of atmospheric 14C during those periods.
Dendrochronological studies are being carried out on two conifer species in the Stanley River area of western Tasmania. The chronology for Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii), with living trees up to 1400 yr old, extends back to 571 bc. Living celery-top pine (Phyllocladus aspleniifolius) trees are up to 500 yr old. Apart from living or recently felled trees, sections have been taken from 350 subfossil logs preserved in floodplain sediments. They range in age from >38 ka to modern, with good coverage for the periods 9–3.5 ka and from 2.5 ka to the present. We report here on 14C measurements of decadal samples from three early Holocene logs, between 10 and 9 ka bp, providing short (ca. 300-yr) records of atmospheric 14C variations when plotted against ring numbers. The southern hemisphere data from Tasmania can be compared and wiggle-matched with published 14C calibration curves from German oak and pine. One set of measurements covers the period, ca. 9280–8990 cal bp, overlapping the link between the Hohenheim “Main 9” and middle Holocene master oak chronologies. The other sets of measurements from Tasmania coincide; they span the period, ca. 9840–9480 cal bp, overlapping the end of the German Preboreal pine and the beginning of the oak chronologies. Our measurements confirm that this part of the calibration curve is a gently sloping 14C-age plateau (ca. 8900–8700 bp, between 10,000 and 9500 cal bp), and suggest interhemispheric 14C differences close to zero.
The ANTARES accelerator mass spectrometry facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratory is operational and AMS measurements of 14C, 26Al and 36Cl are being carried out routinely. Measurement of 129I recently commenced and capabilities for other long-lived radioisotopes such as 10Be are being established. The overall aim of the facility is to develop advanced programs in Quaternary science, global climate change, biomedicine and nuclear safeguards.
The story of a city that was built close by a river must be a watery one. Here is an archaeological and geomorphological study of a medieval Thai city that experienced flooding and sedimentation throughout its life.
Dendrochronological studies have begun on two conifer species in the Stanley River area of western Tasmania. The chronology extends to 273 BC for Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) and to AD 1450 for celery-top pine (Phyllocladus aspleniifolius). Apart from living or recently felled trees, sections have been taken from 58 logs preserved in floodplain sediments. Two of these logs have late Pleistocene ages, centered around 13.0 and 12.7 k 14C yr bp. Four logs are between 8 and 9 ka BP, and one is centered at 7.3 ka bp. The remaining logs have various ages between 6.2 ka BP and the present. 14C measurements have been performed on decadal samples from the two late Pleistocene logs, providing short (260-yr) records of atmospheric 14C variations when plotted against individual ring numbers. Decadal measurements on the 7300-yr-old log have been wiggle-matched with 14C calibration curves from German oak and bristlecone pine. Measurements for the period, AD 1600–1800, show good agreement with northern hemisphere results, and a nearly zero offset between the hemispheres.
Huon pine is endemic to Tasmania. It has well-defined annual rings, may live for over 2000 years, and is particularly resistant to decay. Celery-top pine has similar characteristics and may live for 800 years. As part of a multi-disciplinary study of these trees and their habitat, a simple wood pretreatment method for isotope analysis is described. The solvent-acid-alkali-acid sequence yields a value of Δ14C = −16 ± 6‰ for AD 1941–45 Huon pine heartwood; Δ14C for extracts containing various proportions of post-AD 1955 carbon are also presented. Δ14C measurements on super-canopy and sub-canopy leaves from Celery-top pines are compared and used to place an upper limit of 10% on the amount of sub-canopy CO2 assimilated by sapling leaves, originating from decaying litter-mass. 14C ages from well-preserved logs illustrate the potential for a continuous Holocene chronology from 7400 years BP to the present. A 12,000-year-old Celery-top log has also been found.
Palaeomagnetic field strength measurements for the last 50,000 years are summarized. The period before ~12,000 yr bp is characterized by low dipole moments, but high values are associated with the Lake Mungo polarity excursion between ~32,000 and ~28,000 yr bp. The variation since 12,000 yr bp, based on new results from Australia and published data from the Northern Hemisphere has a quasi-cyclic appearance with maxima at ~10,000 and ~3500 yr bp. The geomagnetic record is used to predict variations in atmospheric 14C concentration, and the results are compared with independent comparisons between 14C and other dating methods. Long-term variations in the 14C time-scale are readily explained by known geomagnetic changes.
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