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Fifty to ninety percent of individuals with Major Neurocognitive Disorder (MNCD) have Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS)1. Agitation and aggression are amongst the most persistent and treatment-refractory symptom clusters. Patients with these NPS are associated with increased risk of institutionalization, psychotropic medication use, caregiver burden, and mortality2.
Safe and effective treatments for NPS are lacking. Consensus guidelines emphasize the initial use of non-pharmacologic approaches though supportive evidence is limited3.
Extensive research has established the safety and efficacy of ECT in elderly patients with depression and other psychiatric conditions6. Clinical experience suggests that ECT is a valuable treatment option in MNCD-related treatment refractory NPS cases7-10. However, data supporting the efficacy and safety of this practice is scant.
Materials and Method:
Patients admitted to the geriatric psychiatry inpatient units who meet the inclusion criteria, were recruited from 2 Vancouver sites and 3 unit at Ontario Shores. These patients had an anesthesia consultation to evaluate their safety of going through ECT. Consent was obtained from their substitute decision makers. All patients enrolled are already on psychotropic medications.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
The World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to be a pandemic on March 11, 2020, and, currently, there are over 10,000 confirmed cases in Canada, with this number expected to grow exponentially. There has been widespread interest in the use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the management of patients with suspected COVID-19. The CAEP Emergency Ultrasound Committee has developed recommendations on the use of POCUS in these patients, with an emphasis on machine infection control measures.
Acute heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are sometimes difficult to differentiate in the emergency department (ED). We sought to determine the clinical impact of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) in ED patients with suspected acute heart failure or COPD.
We conducted a prospectively collected cohort study with health records review with frequency matching at The Ottawa Hospital between March and September 2017. We included patients aged 50 and older with shortness of breath or cough from suspected acute heart failure or COPD. Our primary outcome was ED length of stay. Secondary outcomes were time to disposition decision, time to appropriate treatment, and the incidence of adverse events. We analyzed time-to-event outcomes using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis with POCUS analyzed as a time-dependent variable, and the incidence of adverse events using logistic regression analyses.
There were 81 patients evaluated with lung POCUS and 243 matched patients who were not. Lung POCUS was not significantly associated with ED length of stay and time to disposition decision; however, patients evaluated with lung POCUS received disease-specific treatment faster compared with the non-POCUS group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.50 [95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.15], a median time difference of 31 minutes). We found no significant differences in the incidence of adverse events.
In this study, use of lung POCUS resulted in no difference in ED length of stay and time to disposition decision, but was associated with faster administration of disease-specific treatments for elderly patients with suspected acute heart failure or COPD.
Cricothyrotomy is an intervention performed to salvage “can't intubate, can't ventilate” situations. Studies have shown poor accuracy with landmarking the cricothyroid membrane, particularly in female patients by surgeons and anesthesiologists. This study examines the perceived versus actual success rate of landmarking the cricothyroid membrane by resident and staff emergency physicians using obese and non-obese models.
Five male and female volunteers were models. Each model was placed supine, and a point-of-care ultrasound expert landmarked the borders of each cricothyroid membrane; 20 residents and 15 staff emergency physicians were given one attempt to landmark five models. Overall accuracy and accuracy stratified by sex and obesity status were calculated.
Overall landmarking accuracy amongst all participants was 58% (SD 18%). A difference in accuracy was found for obese males (88%) versus obese females (40%) (difference = 48%, 95% CI = 30–65%, p < 0.0001), and non-obese males (77%) versus non-obese females (46%) (difference = 31%, 95% CI = 12–51%, p = 0.004). There was no association between perceived difficulty and success (correlation = 0.07, 95% CI = −0.081–0.214, p = 0.37). Confidence levels overall were higher amongst staff physicians (3.0) than residents (2.7) (difference = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1–0.6, p = 0.02), but there was no correlation between confidence in an attempt and its success (p = 0.33).
We found that physicians demonstrate significantly lower accuracy when landmarking cricothyroid membranes of females. Emergency physicians were unable to predict their own accuracy while landmarking, which can potentially lead to increased failed attempts and a longer time to secure the airway. Improved training techniques may reduce failed attempts and improve the time to secure the airway.
The definition of initial requirements in the early phase of product development is characterised as a decision process under highest uncertainties. Studies show that projects often deviate from their planned goals or even fail due to ill-defined requirements. Despite the importance and criticality of this task, a detailed description and risk-oriented explanation is missing in the product development literature. The goal of this paper is to develop an explanation model/frame which establishes a link between the development context and an appropriate procedure for the initial requirements definition based on general risk treatment strategies. In a first step, risk-driving context factors with high influence on this task are identified. Then two case studies are compared to analyse the interrelations between their context factors and the applied risk treatment strategies that are implemented in their procedures for defining initial requirements.
Today, information and knowledge as competitive factors influence the success of companies as much as traditional production factors like human resources or physical capital. However, the reuse of design knowledge still represents a major challenge for engineering organizations. That is, because barriers exist hindering a successful knowledge reuse. On the basis of a literature review, the research depicted in this paper analyses the relation between single information conveying design knowledge and barriers hindering a successful knowledge reuse. Developing a model-based approach, we propose a micro logic containing three steps and underlying methods enabling practitioners to identify situation-specific barriers within their organization. We illustrate the industrial application of the approach in a case study at a mining machinery OEM.
The hot ISM in early-type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. The structural features of the hot gas identified by Chandra observations point to key evolutionary mechanisms, (e.g., kim12). In our Chandra Galaxy Atlas (CGA) project, taking full advantage of the Chandra capabilities, we systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of 72 ETGs and produced uniform data products of the hot gas properties. The main data products include spatially resolved 2D spectral maps of the hot gas from individual galaxies. We emphasize that new features can be identified in the spectral maps which are not easily visible in the surface brightness maps. The high-level images can be viewed at the dedicated CGA website, and the CGA data products can be downloaded to compare with other wavelength data and to perform user-specific analyses. Utilizing our data products, we will further address focused science topics.
Trauma code activation is initiated by emergency physicians using physiological and anatomical criteria, mechanism of injury, and patient demographic factors. Our objective was to identify factors associated with delayed trauma team activation.
We assessed consecutive cases from a regional trauma database from January 2008 to March 2014. We defined a delay in trauma code activation as a time greater than 30 minutes from the time of arrival. We conducted univariate analysis for factors potentially influencing trauma team activation, and we subsequently used multiple logistic regression analysis models for delayed activation in relation to mortality, length of stay, and time to operative management.
Patients totalling 846 were included for our analysis; 4.1% (35/846) of trauma codes were activated after 30 minutes. Mean age was 40.8 years in the early group versus 49.2 in the delayed group (p=0.01). Patients were over age 70 years in 7.6% in the early activation group versus 17.1% in the delayed group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference in sex, type of injury, injury severity, or time from injury between the two groups. There was no significant difference in mortality, median length of stay, or median time to operative management.
Delayed activation is linked with increasing age with no clear link to increased mortality. Given the severe injuries in the delayed cohort that required activation of the trauma team, further emphasis on the older trauma patient and interventions to recognize this vulnerable population should be made.
Hip and femoral neck fractures are common in elderly patients, who are at an increased risk of complications if their pain is suboptimally managed. This systematic review seeks to determine if regional nerve blocks reduce pain, reduce the need for parenteral opiates, and reduce complications, compared to standard pain management with opiates, acetaminophen, or NSAIDs.
Systematic review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials found 401 articles, of which nine were selected for inclusion.
Randomized controlled trials including adult patients with a hip or femoral neck fracture (Population) who had a 3-in-1 femoral nerve block, traditional femoral nerve block, or fascia iliaca compartment block performed preoperatively (Intervention). Comparison must have been made with standard pain management with opiates, acetaminophen, or NSAIDs (Comparison) and outcomes must have included pain score reduction (Outcome).
Eight out of nine studies concluded pain scores were improved with the regional nerve block compared to standard pain management. A significant reduction in parenteral opiate use was seen in five out of six studies. No patients suffered life-threatening complications related to the nerve block; however, more minor complications were under-reported. Most of the studies were at a moderate to high risk of bias.
Regional nerve blocks for hip and femoral neck fractures have a benefit in reducing pain and the need for IV opiates. The use of these blocks can be recommended for these patients. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials are required.
At local, galaxy properties are well known to be clearly different in different environments. However, it is still an open question how this environment-dependent trend has been shaped. We present the results of our investigation about the evolution of star-formation properties of galaxies over a wide redshift range, from z ~ 2 to z ~ 0.5, focusing its dependence on their stellar mass and environment (Lee et al. 2015). In the UKIDSS/UDS region, covering ~2800 square arcmin, we estimated photometric redshifts and stellar population properties, such as stellar masses and star-formation rates, using the deep optical and near-infrared data available in this field. Then, we identified galaxy cluster candidates within the given redshift range. Through the analysis and comparison of star-formation (SF) properties of galaxies in clusters and in field, we found interesting results regarding the evolution of SF properties of galaxies: (1) regardless of redshifts, stellar mass is a key parameter controlling quenching of star formation in galaxies; (2) At z < 1, environmental effects become important at quenching star formation regardless of stellar mass of galaxies; and (3) However, the result of the environmental quenching is prominent only for low mass galaxies (M* < 1010 M⊙) since the star formation in most of high mass galaxies are already quenched at z > 1.
Emergency medicine point-of-care ultrasonography (EM-PoCUS) is a core competency for residents in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and College of Family Physicians of Canada emergency medicine (EM) training programs. Although EM-PoCUS fellowships are currently offered in Canada, there is little consensus regarding what training should be included in a Canadian EM-PoCUS fellowship curriculum or how this contrasts with the training received in an EM residency.
To conduct a systematic needs assessment of major stakeholders to define the essential elements necessary for a Canadian EM-PoCUS fellowship training curriculum.
We carried out a national survey of experts in EM-PoCUS, EM residency program directors, and EM residents. Respondents were asked to identify competencies deemed either nonessential to EM practice, essential for general EM practice, essential for advanced EM practice, or essential for EM-PoCUS fellowship trained (‘‘expert’’) practice.
The response rate was 81% (351 of 435). PoCUS was deemed essential to general EM practice for basic cardiac, aortic, trauma, and procedural imaging. PoCUS was deemed essential to advanced EM practice in undifferentiated symptomatology, advanced chest pathologies, and advanced procedural applications. Expert-level PoCUS competencies were identified for administrative, pediatric, and advanced gynecologic applications. Eighty-seven percent of respondents indicated that there was a need for EM-PoCUS fellowships, with an ideal length of 6 months.
This is the first needs assessment of major stakeholders in Canada to identify competencies for expert training in EM-PoCUS. The competencies should form the basis for EM-PoCUS fellowship programs in Canada.
Cushing disease (CD) constitutes a challenging condition for the pituitary surgeon. Given the variety of factors affecting outcomes in CD, it is uncertain whether the newer endoscopic technique improves the results of surgery.
A review was conducted of CD cases at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Analysis was done to: determine if surgical technique had an effect on outcome, identify the predictors of outcome and provide details of failed cases. Remission was defined as normal postoperative 24-hour urinary free cortisol (24-h UFC), suppression of morning serum cortisol to <50 nmol/L after 1mg of dexamethasone or being dependent on steroid replacement.
Forty-two patients met our inclusion criteria. Average follow-up period was 33 months. There were 15 macroadenomas and 27 microadenomas. Seventeen patients had an endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery and twenty-five patients had a microscopic transsphenoidal procedure. Long-term overall remission was achieved in 26 (62%) patients. There was no significant difference in remission rates between the two techniques (p value 0.757). Patient's subjective symptomatic improvement and drop of morning serum cortisol in the postoperative period to less than 100 nmol/L correlated with long-term remission (p value 0.0031and 0.0101, respectively) while repeat surgery was the only predictor of the lack of postoperative remission (p value 0.0008).
Revision surgery predicted poor remission rate for CD. Within the power of our study size, there was no difference in outcome between the endoscopic and microscopic approaches. Surgical outcomes should be reviewed in association with remission criteria used in a study.
Point-of-care ultrasonography (PoCUS) first appeared in the 1980s in North America, but the extent of the diffusion of its adoption is unknown. We characterized early PoCUS adoption by emergency physicians in Canada and its barriers to use using Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory.
We developed a questionnaire based on a pilot study and literature review to assess past, current, and potential use of PoCUS and potential barriers to adoption. A Dillman technique for electronic surveys was used for dissemination. Using Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory, we developed and validated the Evaluation Tool for Ultrasound skills Development and Education (ETUDE). ETUDE scores allowed categorization of respondents into innovators, early adopters, majority, and nonadopters. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and x2 statistics were used to analyze the data.
The 296 respondents (36.4% of 814 surveyed) had a median age of 40 and were 72.5% male. Adoption scores using ETUDE revealed nonadopters (18.8%), majority (28.7%), early adopters (34.5%), and innovators (18.0%). Respondents endorsed “always” using PoCUS currently and in the future for focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) (current 41.8%/future 88.4%), first trimester pregnancy (current 23.3%/future 73.7%), suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm (current 32.7%/future 92.6%), basic cardiac indications (current 30.7%/future 87.5%), and central venous catheterization (current 17.0%/future 80.3%). Several barriers to PoCUS were identified for part-time emergency physicians and those working in inner-city/urban/suburban settings.
This is the first study to determine the state of adoption and barriers to the introduction of PoCUS in Canadian emergency medicine practice. The novel validated ETUDE instrument should be used to evaluate the uptake of PoCUS over time.
Impairments in learning and recall have been well established in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, a relative dearth of studies has examined the profiles of memory strategy use in persons with aMCI relative to those with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants with aMCI, nonamnestic MCI, AD, and healthy older adults were administered the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Measures of semantic clustering and recall were obtained across learning and delayed recall trials. In addition, we investigated whether deficits in semantic clustering were related to progression from healthy aging to aMCI and from aMCI to AD. The aMCI group displayed similar semantic clustering performance as the AD participants, whereas the AD group showed greater impairments on recall relative to the aMCI participants. Control participants who progressed to aMCI showed reduced semantic clustering at the short delay at baseline compared to individuals who remained diagnostically stable across follow-up visits. These findings show that the ability to engage in an effective memory strategy is compromised in aMCI, before AD has developed, suggesting that disruptions in semantic networks are an early marker of the disease. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–11)
Nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are strong candidates for energy efficient carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. A total of ∼20,000 hypothetical MOFs were ab initio screened for CO2 adsorption using grand canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) simulations. Novel radial distribution function (RDF) scores were modified for periodic systems to predict the CO2 adsorption of MOFs using chemoinformatic models. The test set predictions yielded accuracies of 0.76 and 0.85 at 0.1 bar and 1 bar, respectively. The models were used to screen a large database for high performing MOFs and the top 100 structures were successfully validated by GCMC simulations. The chemoinformatic predictors of the CO2 adsorption of MOFs are available online at http://titan.chem.uottawa.ca/woolab/MOFIA/#carbondioxide.