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To examine rural–urban differences in temporal trends and risk of inappropriate antibiotic use by agent and duration among women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).
Observational cohort study.
Using the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database (2010–2015), we identified US commercially insured women aged 18–44 years coded for uncomplicated UTI and prescribed an oral antibiotic agent. We classified antibiotic agents and durations as appropriate versus inappropriate based on clinical guidelines. Rural–urban status was defined by residence in a metropolitan statistical area. We used modified Poisson regression to determine the association between rural–urban status and inappropriate antibiotic receipt, accounting for patient- and provider-level characteristics. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate trends in antibiotic use by rural–urban status.
Of 670,450 women with uncomplicated UTI, a large proportion received antibiotic prescriptions for inappropriate agents (46.7%) or durations (76.1%). Compared to urban women, rural women were more likely to receive prescriptions with inappropriately long durations (adjusted risk ratio 1.10, 95% CI, 1.10–1.10), which was consistent across subgroups. From 2011 to 2015, there was slight decline in the quarterly proportion of patients who received inappropriate agents (48.5% to 43.7%) and durations (78.3% to 73.4%). Rural–urban differences varied over time by agent (duration outcome only), geographic region, and provider specialty.
Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is quite common for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI. Rural women are more likely to receive inappropriately long antibiotic durations. Antimicrobial stewardship interventions are needed to improve outpatient UTI antibiotic prescribing and to reduce unnecessary exposure to antibiotics, particularly in rural settings.
Public health practitioners face challenging, potentially high-consequence, problems that require computational support. Available computational tools may not adequately fit these problems, thus forcing practitioners to rely on qualitative estimates when making critical decisions. Scientists at the Center for Computational Epidemiology and Response Analysis and practitioners from the Texas Department of State Health Services (TXDSHS) have established a participatory development cycle where public health practitioners work closely with academia to foster the development of data-driven solutions for specific public health problems and to translate these solutions to practice. Tools developed through this cycle have been deployed at TXDSHS offices where they have been used to refine and enhance the region’s medical countermeasure distribution and dispensing capabilities. Consequently, TXDSHS practitioners planning for a 49-county region in North Texas have achieved a 29% reduction in the number of points of dispensing required to complete dispensing to the region within time limitations. Further, an entire receiving, staging, and storing site has been removed from regional plans, thus freeing limited resources (eg, personnel, security, and infrastructure) for other uses. In 2018, planners from Southeast Texas began using these tools to plan for a multi-county, full-scale exercise which was scheduled to be conducted in October 2019.
Northern Ireland presents itself as an anomaly – a region in which only 31.8% of doctors enter into any training programme after completion of the Foundation Programme, but where Core Psychiatry has been consistently oversubscribed. Here, we aim to find what other regions can learn from this success. All doctors of any grade, working in psychiatry, who had been though the Foundation Programme were questioned on their motivations for becoming a psychiatry trainee.
Sixty-two doctors currently working in psychiatry responded, including over 60% of current trainees, and 45% stated they had not considered a career in psychiatry before their foundation attachment. Over 80% preferred foundation placements in FY2 only, rather than in either foundation year 1 or FY2.
This survey identifies that for the majority of people who ultimately chose to train in psychiatry, in a region that has consistently attracted candidates to core and higher level training, completion of a foundation psychiatry post was an influencing factor in this decision. A strong majority of doctors prefer the foundation psychiatry placement to be offered in FY2.