Three different strategies, wet impregnation, in situ reduction, and grafting with silane coupling agents, have been used to introduce CoNi nanoparticles with different existing forms into mesoporous silica. These composites were used as catalysts to grow nanostructured carbons by catalytic chemical vapor deposition using ethene. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different inner diameters can grow out of mesoporous silica particles incorporated with CoNi nanoclusters. Many fewer CNTs could be found in the pore channels of the sample prepared by using silane coupling agents than in those of the sample synthesized via wet impregnation. No CNTs formed in the pore channels of the sample prepared by in situ reduction. After the removal of silica, different carbon nanostructures have been obtained in the pore channels. Ordered graphite carbon mesostructure was obtained from the sample prepared by in situ reduction. Highly dispersed metal catalysts inside mesopore channels are favorable for the formation of graphite carbons with ordered mesostructures.