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Several amino acids can stimulate milk synthesis in mammary epithelial cells (MEC); however, the regulatory role of isoleucine (Ile) and underlying molecular mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the regulatory effects of Ile on milk protein and fat synthesis in MEC and reveal the mediation mechanism of Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) on this regulation. Ile dose dependently affected milk protein and fat synthesis, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) expression and maturation, and BRG1 protein expression in bovine MEC. Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition by LY294002 treatment blocked the stimulation of Ile on BRG1 expression. BRG1 knockdown and gene activation experiments showed that it mediated the stimulation of Ile on milk protein and fat synthesis, mTOR phosphorylation, and SREBP-1c expression and maturation in MEC. ChIP-PCR analysis detected that BRG1 bound to the promoters of mTOR and SREBP-1c, and ChIP-qPCR further detected that these bindings were increased by Ile stimulation. In addition, BRG1 positively regulated the binding of H3K27ac to these two promoters, while it negatively affected the binding of H3K27me3 to these promoters. BRG1 knockdown blocked the stimulation of Ile on these two gene expressions. The expression of BRG1 was higher in mouse mammary gland in the lactating period, compared with that in the puberty or dry period. Taken together, these experimental data reveal that Ile stimulates milk protein and fat synthesis in MEC via the PI3K-BRG1-mTOR/SREBP-1c pathway.
The aim of this study was to present the clinical characteristics and dynamic changes in laboratory parameters of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Guangzhou, and explore the probable early warning indicators of disease progression.
We enrolled all the patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Guangzhou No. 8 People’s Hospital. The patients’ demographic and epidemiologic data were collected, including chief complaints, lab results, and imaging examination findings.
The characteristics of the patients in Guangzhou are different from those in Wuhan. The patients were younger in age, predominately female, and their condition was not commonly combined with other diseases. A total of 75% of patients suffered fever on admission, followed by cough occurring in 62% patients. Comparing the mild/normal and severe/critical patients, being male, of older age, combined with hypertension, abnormal blood routine test results, raised creatine kinase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, and positive proteinuria were early warning indicators of severe disease.
The patients outside epidemic areas showed different characteristics from those in Wuhan. The abnormal laboratory parameters were markedly changed 4 weeks after admission, and also were different between the mild and severe patients. More evidence is needed to confirm highly specific and sensitive potential early warning indicators of severe disease.
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