Although persisting endothelial dysfunction has been established in the vasculature of patients following surgical repair of coarctation, it is unknown whether there are alterations in the cytoskeleton of the aorta in such patients. We compared staining of N-terminus dystrophin in the smooth muscle of the aortic wall of a patient with coarctation to that in a patient without coarctation, the latter undergoing surgical treatment of a double aortic arch. There was a marked difference in the pattern of expression of dystrophin between the two, with the coarcted specimen demonstrating marked fragmentation but normal intensity of staining. As far as we are aware, ours is the first report to demonstrate the presence of dystrophin in the smooth muscle of the aorta. Alterations in the cytoskeletal structure may account for underlying aberrations in endothelial function in such patients, and is a topic that warrants further investigation.