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The efficacy of the unified protocol of the transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders (UP) has been poorly studied in patients with depressive disorders. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of UP for improving depressive symptoms in patients with depressive and/or anxiety-related disorders.
This assessor-blinded, randomized, 20-week, parallel-group, superiority study compared the efficacy of the UP with treatment-as-usual (UP-TAU) v. wait-list with treatment-as-usual (WL-TAU). Patients diagnosed with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and with depressive symptoms participated. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms assessed by GRID-Hamilton depression rating scale (GRID-HAMD) at 21 weeks. The secondary outcomes included assessor-rated anxiety symptoms, severity and improvement of clinical global impression, responder and remission status, and loss of principal diagnosis.
In total, 104 patients participated and were subjected to intention-to-treat analysis [mean age = 37.4, s.d. = 11.5, 63 female (61%), 54 (51.9%) with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorders]. The mean GRID-HAMD scores in the UP-TAU and WL-TAU groups were 16.15 (s.d. = 4.90) and 17.06 (s.d. = 6.46) at baseline and 12.14 (s.d. = 5.47) and 17.34 (s.d. = 5.78) at 21 weeks, with a significant adjusted mean change difference of −3.99 (95% CI −6.10 to −1.87). Patients in the UP-TAU group showed significant superiority in anxiety and clinical global impressions. The improvement in the UP-TAU group was maintained in all outcomes at 43 weeks. No serious adverse events were observed in the UP-TAU group.
The UP is an effective approach for patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.
Objective: Although depression is a prevalent and burdensome
psychiatric problem in end-of-life cancer patients, little is known about
its susceptibility to treatment, especially when patients reach very close
to the end of life. This study was conducted to evaluate response rate of
that end-of-life depression to psychiatric intervention and to assess the
feasibility of conventional evidence-based pharmacological therapy for
Methods: The medical records of 20 patients who were referred
to the psychiatry division for major depressive disorder and died within 3
months after the referral were reviewed. The Clinical Global
Impression–Improvement (CGI-I) Scale was used for each case, and
responders were defined as patients whose scores were much or very much
improved. All pharmacological treatments were extracted, and the doses of
the antidepressant prescribed were compared to their
evidence-based-defined therapeutic doses.
Results: Of the 20 patients, seven were responders, but no
response was achieved when the survival time was less than 3 weeks. Most
patients were treated with antidepressants, but the doses prescribed were
far less than the defined doses, especially the doses of the tricyclic
Significance of results: These results suggested that
patients' survival time largely determines susceptibility to
psychiatric treatment, and it is hard to achieve response in patients
whose survival time was less than about 1 month. Implementation of
conventional evidence-based pharmacological treatment is difficult,
especially with TCAs, and various antidepressants, which can be
administrated by other routes, are needed when oral intake is
Highly accurate X-ray masks are strongly required to establish SR lithography technology. X-ray masks must be produced as accurately as the LSI devices, because a one-toone projection aligner system is used. To minimize the in-plane mask distortion, it is desirable to estimate the value of the stress and the non-uniformity in the membrane fabrication (SiN) process. The values of the stress were estimated from the measurement of the warpage and the calculation. It is very difficult to obtain the stress distribution in the SiN/Si wafer. Thus, we measured the minority carrier lifetime distribution using the non-contact laser/microwave method. The carrier injection was done by a 774nm or 904nm semiconductor laser diode, and their beam was focused to about 500 μmφ. The surface lifetime, τ s, of the SiN/Si wafer with the stress over ˜ 108dyn/cm2 decreased to 60–70% of that of the bare Si wafer. Thus, the contactless laser/microwave system can be adaptable for the characterization in the X-ray mask process.
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