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CyberKnife is the most advanced form of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) system that uses a robotic arm to deliver highly focused beams of radiation; however, a limitation is that it only irradiates from ceiling to floor direction. In patients with posterior lungs tumour who are positioned supine, normal lung tissue may suffer undesirable radiation injuries. This study compares the treatment planning between the prone set-up and the supine set-up for lung cancer in CyberKnife SBRT to decrease normal lung dose to avoid radiation side effects.
Materials and methods:
A human phantom was used to generate 108 plans (54 for prone and 54 for supine) using the CyberKnife planning platform. The supine and prone plans were compared in terms of the dosimetric characteristics, delivery efficiency and plan efficiency.
For posterior targets, the area of low-dose exposure to normal lungs was smaller in the prone set-up than in the supine set-up. V10 of the lungs was 7·53% and 10·47% (p < 0·001) in the anterior region, and 10·78% and 8·03% (p < 0·001) in the posterior region in the supine and prone set-up plans, respectively.
The comparison between the prone set-up and the supine set-up was investigated with regard to target coverage and dose to organs at risk. Our results may be deployed in CyberKnife treatment planning to monitor normal tissue dose by considering patient positioning. This may assist in the design of better treatment plans and prevention of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients.
In 2005, a seven-car commuter express train collided with an apartment building in Japan. The crash left 107 passengers dead and 549 injured. This paper highlights confined space medicine mat was provided for three survivors and introduces the current approach for training Japan Disaster Medical Teams (JDMATs) and/or rescue professionals.
A retrospective analysis of confined space medicine provided after the train crash and a study of training of JDMATs and/or rescue teams.
Three medical teams and search-and-rescue teams rescued three survivors whose bodies were trapped in the tangled wreckage of the first car. The medical teams secured intravenous lines and provided oxygen and approximately 4L of fluid before extrication. A 46-year-old woman was extricated in 14 hours, a 19-year-old man in 16.5 hours, and an 18-year-old man 22 hours after the crash. All three worsened at the final moment of extrication. Their crush syndrome required resuscitation at the scene, and intensive care such as hemodialysis and limb amputation in hospitals. Two patients survived and one patient died on me fifth day due to multiple organ dysfunctions.
Now, the curriculum of the JDMAT training course includes lectures and introductory exercises with rescue teams to learn the importance and difficulties of confined space medicine at the scene.
Confined space medicine was provided successfully after the train crash. Knowledge of confined-space medicine is essential to medical and rescue teams. Further education and training curriculum must be created.