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To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional infection control approach to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates.
Four neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of INICC member hospitals from El Salvador, Mexico, Philippines, and Tunisia.
A total of 2,241 patients hospitalized in 4 NICUs for 40,045 bed-days.
We conducted a before-after prospective surveillance study. During Phase 1 we performed active surveillance, and during phase 2 the INICC multidimensional infection control approach was implemented, including the following practices: (1) central line care bundle, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback of CLABSI rates, and (6) performance feedback of infection control practices. We compared CLABSI rates obtained during the 2 phases. We calculated crude stratified rates, and, using random-effects Poisson regression to allow for clustering by ICU, we calculated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for each follow-up time period compared with the 3-month baseline.
During phase 1 we recorded 2,105 CL-days, and during phase 2 we recorded 17,117 CL-days. After implementation of the multidimensional approach, the CLABSI rate decreased by 55%, from 21.4 per 1,000 CL-days during phase 1 to 9.7 per 1,000 CL-days during phase 2 (rate ratio, 0.45 [95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.63]). The IRR was 0.53 during the 4–12-month period and 0.07 during the final period of the study (more than 45 months).
Implementation of a multidimensional infection control approach was associated with a significant reduction in CLABSI rates in NICUs.
Before-after prospective surveillance study to assess the efficacy of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional infection control program to reduce the rate of occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of INICC member hospitals from 15 cities in the following 10 developing countries: Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Tunisia, and Turkey.
VAP rates were determined during a first period of active surveillance without the implementation of the multidimensional approach (phase 1) to be then compared with VAP rates after implementation of the INICC multidimensional infection control program (phase 2), which included the following practices: a bundle of infection control interventions, education, outcome surveillance, process surveillance, feedback on VAP rates, and performance feedback on infection control practices. This study was conducted by infection control professionals who applied National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions for healthcare-associated infections and INICC surveillance methodology.
During phase 1, we recorded 3,153 mechanical ventilation (MV)–days, and during phase 2, after the implementation of the bundle of interventions, we recorded 15,981 MV-days. The VAP rate was 17.8 cases per 1,000 MV-days during phase 1 and 12.0 cases per 1,000 MV-days during phase 2 (relative risk, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.91]; P = .001 ), indicating a 33% reduction in VAP rate.
Our results demonstrate that an implementation of the INICC multidimensional infection control program was associated with a significant reduction in VAP rate in NICUs in developing countries.
The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) was established in 15 developing countries to reduce infection rates in resource-limited hospitals by focusing on education and feedback of outcome surveillance (infection rates) and process surveillance (adherence to infection control measures). We report a time-sequence analysis of the effectiveness of this approach in reducing rates of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and associated deaths in 86 intensive care units with a minimum of 6-month INICC membership.
Pooled CLABSI rates during the first 3 months (baseline) were compared with rates at 6-month intervals during the first 24 months in 53,719 patients (190,905 central line–days). Process surveillance results at baseline were compared with intervention period data.
During the first 6 months, CLABSI incidence decreased by 33% (from 14.5 to 9.7 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line–days). Over the first 24 months there was a cumulative reduction from baseline of 54% (from 16.0 to 7.4 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line–days; relative risk, 0.46 [95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.63]; P <.001). The number of deaths in patients with CLABSI decreased by 58%. During the intervention period, hand hygiene adherence improved from 50% to 60% (P<.001); the percentage of intensive care units that used maximal sterile barriers at insertion increased from 45% to 85% (P < .001), that adopted Chlorhexidine for antisepsis increased from 7% to 27% (P = .018), and that sought to remove unneeded catheters increased from 37% to 83% (P = .004); and the duration of central line placement decreased from 4.1 to 3.5 days (P < .001).
Education, performance feedback, and outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI rates significantly improved infection control adherence, reducing the CLABSI incidence by 54% and the number of CLABSI-associated deaths by 58% in INICC hospitals during the first 2 years.
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