To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Transcatheter implantation of pulmonary balloon-expandable stent-valves requires pre-stenting of the right ventricular outflow tract with large calibre stents. To increase awareness of the associated risks of this part of transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement therapy, we report potential fatal complications during the implantation of AndraStents® in the right ventricular outflow tract in six cases from five different European institutions and their management.
Method and result:
We present a retrospective case series analysis looking at the time period from 2013 to 2018. Of 127 AndraStents® implanted in the right ventricular outflow tract, in six patients, age from 13 to 71 years, a misconfiguration of the AndraStent® occurred forming a “diabolo”-configuration. During inflation of the balloon, the stent showed extreme “dog-boning”, an expansion of the stent at both ends with the middle part remaining unexpanded. This led to rupture of the balloon and loss of manoeuvrability in four patients. Out of the total six cases, in four patients the stent was eventually expanded with high-pressure balloons, and in one case the stent was surgically retrieved. In one patient, in whom a percutaneous retrieval of the embolised stent was attempted, a fatal bleeding occurred.
Pre-stenting of the right ventricular outflow tract by AndraStents® can lead to misconfiguration of the stent with potentially fatal complications. Rescue strategies of misconfigured stents include stent inflation and placement with high pressure non-compliant balloons or surgical backup. Interventional retrieval measures of AndraStents® cannot be advised.
Left atrial congestion results from backward failure in dilated cardiomyopathy. We aimed to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous atrioseptostomy to create a restrictive atrial septum defect in management of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Methods and results
From June 2009 to December 2016, 27 interventions comprised left atria decompressions in 22 dilated cardiomyopathy patients; 9 females; age: 24 days to 36.9 years; weight: 3–50 kg; NYHA-/Ross class IV (n=16). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 21.5±9.7% and brain natriuretic peptide was 2291±1992 pg/ml. Dilated cardiomyopathy was classified as chronic (n=9); acute (n=1) myocarditis; idiopathic (n=5); left ventricular non-compaction (n=4); mitochondriopathy, pacemaker induced, and arrhythmogenic (n=3). Atrioseptostomy was concomitantly performed with myocardial biopsies 6.5 days (±11.7) after admission (n=11). Trans-septal puncture was used in 18 patients; foramen ovale dilatation was done in four patients. Mean balloon size was 11 mm (range 7–14 mm); total procedure time was 133±38 minutes. No procedural complications were observed. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from 15.8±6.8 to 12.2±4.8 mmHg (p=0.005), left/right atrial pressure gradient from 9.6±5.6 to 5±3.5 mmHg; brain natriuretic peptide (n=18) decreased from 1968±1606 to 830±1083 pg/ml (p=0.01). One patient unsuitable for heart transplantation died at home despite additionally performed pulmonary artery banding and three further left atrial decompressions; five patients were bridged to transplantation, two died afterwards. Functional recovery occurred in the remaining 14 patients and in six after additional pulmonary artery banding. No patient required assist device.
Percutaneous left atrial decompression is an age-independent, effective palliation treating patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Limited data exist on the vitamin D status in Fontan patients. We determined the prevalence and potential risk factors of vitamin D deficiency in this patient subset.
Methods and results
Data were collected from 27 Fontan patients (55.6% male, mean age 8.1±5.3 years). Protein-losing enteropathy was diagnosed in six patients (22.2%). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of <20 ng/ml. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, a marker of systemic inflammation, was calculated. Associations between laboratory measurements and patient characteristics were explored. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 14.1±10.4 ng/ml. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 19/27 patients (70.3%). Only skin type was associated with vitamin D deficiency (p=0.04). Hyperparathyroidism was present in 5/21 (23.8%) patients, and was more prevalent in patients with protein-losing enteropathy (p<0.001). Parathyroid hormone levels correlated with parameters of systemic inflammation (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: r=0.484, p=0.026; relative lymphocyte count: r=−0.635, p=0.002). Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p<0.0001), and was accompanied by a reduction in parathyroid hormone concentrations (p=0.032).
A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found among Fontan patients, independent of age, time after Fontan procedure, ventricular morphology, and presence of protein-losing enteropathy. A potentially important link between parathyroid hormone levels and systemic inflammation is suggested.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.