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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an acute neurologic syndrome where decreased blood flow and oxygen to the brain causes acute and chronic brain dysfunction. The only proven neuroprotective intervention for HIE is hypothermia treatment started within 6 hours of birth and 50% of survivors have long-term deficits. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pre-clinical adult stroke studies demonstrated that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates brain damage. Transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) is safe and feasible in infants and may improve the motor skill of bottle feeding. We hypothesize that a combined hypothermia-taVNS treatment shortly after HIE birth will have neuroprotective effects, improve motor function, attenuate infarct volume inflammation compared to hypothermia alone. The HIE model includes ligation of the right common carotid artery in postnatal day 7 (P7) rats followed by 90min hypoxia (8% oxygen) and 2hr hypothermia. taVNS or sham taVNS was administered using a bipolar electrode placed on the auricular concha region for 30min, [30sec trains, 0.5msec duration, 20Hz frequency, followed by 4.5min breaks] RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Experimental groups include +HIE/+taVNS, +HIE/-taVNS, and -HIE/-taVNS. To assess motor function, grasping reflex and forelimb grip strength tasks were assessed prior to surgery through P10. Infarct volume was assessed at 72h after injury by staining coronal sections with cresyl-violet. Thirty-four rat pups underwent surgery with an 8.82% mortality rate. taVNS was well tolerated by the P7 rats when delivered below perceptual threshold (0.4-1.1mA). There was no difference in elementary motor function or infarct volume between any group. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Future studies will include 2.5hr hypoxia for a more severe brain injury and a -HIE/+taVNS control group. These initial pre-clinical studies in neonates are important in determining whether taVNS may translate as a treatment to improve outcomes after neonatal HIE.
We assess Mercury’s geologic history, focusing on the distribution and origin of terrain types and an overview of Mercury’s evolution from the pre-Tolstojan through the Kuiperian Period. We review evidence for the nature of Mercury’s early crust, including the possibility that a substantial portion formed by the global eruption of lavas generated by partial melting during and after overturn of the crystalline products of magma ocean cooling, whereas a much smaller fraction of the crust may have been derived from crystal flotation in such a magma ocean. The early history of Mercury may thus have been similar to that of the other terrestrial planets, with much of the crust formed through volcanism, in contrast to the flotation-dominated crust of the Moon. Small portions of Mercury’s early crust may still be exposed in a heavily modified and brecciated form; the majority of the surface is dominated by intercrater plains (Pre-Tolstojan and Tolstojan in age) and smooth plains (Tolstojan and Calorian) that formed through a combination of volcanism and impact events. As effusive volcanism waned in the Calorian, explosive volcanism continued at least through the Mansurian Period; the Kuiperian Period was dominated by impact events and the formation of hollows.
Despite improvements in the medical and surgical management of infants with CHD, growth failure before surgery in many infants continues to be a significant concern. A nutritional pathway was developed, the aim of which was to provide a structured approach to nutritional care for infants with CHD awaiting surgery.
Materials and methods
The modified Delphi process was development of a nutritional pathway; initial stakeholder meeting to finalise draft guidelines and develop questions; round 1 anonymous online survey; round 2 online survey; regional cardiac conference and pathway revision; and final expert meeting and pathway finalisation.
Paediatric Dietitians from all 11 of the paediatric cardiology surgical centres in the United Kingdom contributed to the guideline development. In all, 33% of participants had 9 or more years of experience working with infants with CHD. By the end of rounds 1 and 2, 76 and 96% of participants, respectively, were in agreement with the statements. Three statements where consensus was not achieved by the end of round 2 were discussed and agreed at the final expert group meeting.
Nutrition guidelines were developed for infants with CHD awaiting surgery, using a modified Delphi process, incorporating the best available evidence and expert opinion with regard to nutritional support in this group.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
Metal organic framework (MOF) materials are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic crystalline materials whose pore structures and chemical properties can be tailored by the selection of component chemical moieties. Many MOFs have extraordinary intrinsic surface areas, capable of adsorbing large quantities of other chemicals, such as volatile organic compounds or moisture. Upon absorption of guest molecules, many MOFs undergo reversible changes in the dimensions of their unit cells. These properties suggest several routes to chemical sensing in which the transduction mechanisms are: 1) the stress induced at an interface between a flexible MOF layer and a static microcantilever fabricated with a built-in piezoresistive stress sensor; 2) the change in the resonant frequency of an oscillating microcantilever induced by mass adsorption; and 3) the change in the resonant frequency of a acoustic sensor, such as a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor through changes in mass loading and film moduli. This paper focuses on humidity sensing by SAWs coated with Cu3(BTC)2 (HKUST-1) over a very broad concentration range.
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
In the first seven months of 2008, eighteen Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris), four Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens), five unidentified beaked whales and twenty-nine long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) were reported stranded in the UK and Ireland. Decomposition of those animals investigated puts the predicted time of death at mid-January. Concerns that an unusual mortality event had taken place prompted further investigations. Most carcasses were too decomposed for necropsy. A summary of findings is presented here. Although the initial stranding of five Cuvier's beaked whales in Scotland shared some similarities with atypical mass stranding events linked in time and space to mid-frequency naval sonars, there were two important differences with the remaining strandings during this period. First, the geographical range of the event was very wide and second, the strandings occurred over a prolonged period of several months. Both of these factors could be related to the fact that the mortalities occurred offshore and the carcasses drifted ashore. The cause(s) of this high number of strandings of mixed offshore cetacean species during this period remain undetermined.
The Working Group on Planetary System Nomenclature (WG-PSN) develops, maintains and publishes guidelines for naming natural satellites of planets and surface features on all solar system bodies except Earth. When required the WG approves lists of new nomenclature, with accompanying explanatory notes, based on the established guidelines. Approved names are immediately added into the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Objections based on significant, substantive problems may be submitted within a 3-months period, and will be ruled on by Division III.