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This chapter provides a summary of human ovarian physiology. The reader is introduced to basic concepts of sex determination, in particular how primordial germ cells and somatic cells differentiate and multiply to establish the reserve of primordial follicles. Key molecular and cellular events associated with primordial and preantral stages of follicle development are described. The chapter then provides an overview of antral follicle development, which is subdivided to consider the morphological changes and the role of granulosa and theca cells in steroidogenesis, along with development of the oocyte. The changes that occur as the follicle matures towards ovulation are also considered, in particular the fundamental role of hormones, cumulus expansion and resumption of meiosis. Finally, establishment and maintenance of the corpus luteum is briefly discussed. Diagrams of steroidogenesis and an overview of follicle formation and development are provided to supplement the text.
This chapter is an introduction to the book. The chapter therefore starts with introducing the practical necessity for a leniency programme and the first use of a leniency programme in the United States. After this, the focus shifts to Asia. The chapter indicates that competition law in Asia is a relatively recent phenomenon, which, in turn, has had an impact on the implementation of the leniency programme in Asia. Since the Asian countries, more specifically China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and the Philippines, saw the success of the leniency programme in other jurisdictions, their embrace of the leniency programme was not only fast but also recent. This means that these leniency programmes have not yet been researched against the existing theoretical literature.
The concluding chapter argues that the Asian leniency programmes only converge on the core elements of a leniency programme. The core elements are the building blocks of a leniency programme. However, the composition of these blocks is often different. Some of the differences are subtle. Other differences make the respective leniency programme distinct from the others. Some of the distinctive elements are not necessarily part of the building blocks any more and thus give a unique character to the respective leniency programme. This chapter further claims that these differences can be explained by either the political economy of a country, experimentation due to prior negative enforcement results and a desire to achieve better enforcement results, or foreign influence. Since the result of experimentation cannot always be predicted, the authors estimate that further amendments will be made to the Asian leniency programmes.
This chapter situates the emergence of leniency programmes in competition law in the broader context of contemporary trends in business regulation. It is suggested that although leniency programmes are a distinctive form of regulatory intervention, they do exhibit a family resemblance with other regulatory mechanisms that have emerged in the last two decades in other fields of business regulation, and that similar trends, pressures and effects can be seen across different regulatory contexts. The four trends highlighted are a shift towards some form of negotiated justice, a new emphasis on regulatory experimentation, the creation of new forms of transnational legal risk, and the emerging importance of regulatory networks. The intention of this chapter is not to blur the distinction between these different developments, but rather to suggest that by locating leniency in the context of these broader trends, we can deepen our understanding of the significance of these developments.