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It is unclear whether people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of complex PTSD due to childhood abuse need a treatment approach different from approaches in the PTSD treatment guidelines.
To determine whether a phase-based approach is more effective than an immediate trauma-focused approach in people with childhood-trauma related PTSD (Netherlands Trial Registry no.: NTR5991).
Adults with PTSD following childhood abuse were randomly assigned to either a phase-based treatment condition (8 sessions of Skills Training in Affect and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR), followed by 16 sessions of eye-movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy; n = 57) or an immediately trauma-focused treatment condition (16 sessions of EMDR therapy; n = 64). Participants were assessed for symptoms of PTSD and complex PTSD, and other forms of psychopathology before, during and after treatment and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups.
Data were analysed with linear mixed models. No significant differences between the two treatments on any variable at post-treatment or follow-up were found. Post-treatment, 68.8% no longer met PTSD diagnostic criteria. Self-reported PTSD symptoms significantly decreased for both STAIR–EMDR therapy (d = 0.93) and EMDR therapy (d = 1.54) from pre- to post-treatment assessment, without significant difference between the two conditions. No differences in drop-out rates between the conditions were found (STAIR–EMDR 22.8% v. EMDR 17.2%). No study-related adverse events occurred.
This study provides compelling support for the use of EMDR therapy alone for the treatment of PTSD due to childhood abuse as opposed to needing any preparatory intervention.
Peer victimization is associated with a wide range of mental health problems in youth, yet few studies described its association with mental health comorbidities.
To test the association between peer victimization timing and intensity and mental health comorbidities, we used data from 1216 participants drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a population-based birth cohort. Peer victimization was self-reported at ages 6–17 years, and modeled as four trajectory groups: low, childhood-limited, moderate adolescence-emerging, and high-chronic. The outcomes were the number and the type of co-occurring self-reported mental health problems at age 20 years. Associations were estimated using negative binomial and multinomial logistic regression models and adjusted for parent, family, and child characteristics using propensity score inverse probability weights.
Youth in all peer victimization groups had higher rates of co-occurring mental health problems and higher likelihood of comorbid internalizing-externalizing problems [odds ratios ranged from 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52–2.79 for childhood-limited to 4.34, 95% CI 3.15–5.98 for high-chronic victimization] compared to those in the low victimization group. The strength of these associations was highest for the high-chronic group, followed by moderate adolescence-emerging and childhood-limited groups. All groups also presented higher likelihood of internalizing-only problems relative to the low peer victimization group.
Irrespective of timing and intensity, self-reported peer victimization was associated with mental health comorbidities in young adulthood, with the strongest associations observed for high-chronic peer victimization. Tackling peer victimization, especially when persistent over time, could play a role in reducing severe and complex mental health problems in youth.
The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated widespread change across health and social care in England and Wales. A series of lockdowns and UK Government guidance designed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 which emphasised social distancing and increased use of personal protective equipment led to changes such as increased use of remote consultation technologies and the closure of services deemed non-essential. This included many services for people with dementia and their families, such as day centres and dementia cafes.
To explore the changes made to services during the pandemic and the impact of these changes on the delivery of good post-diagnostic dementia support.
Professionals who had previously been recruited to the ongoing PriDem qualitative study were approached for follow up interview. Eighteen interviews with a total of 21 professionals working in health, social care and the third sector were conducted using telephone or video conferencing.
Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and checked prior to thematic analysis.
Key themes emerging from preliminary analysis of the data include: uncertainty about the future and the need to adapt quickly to shifting guidance; changing job roles and ways of working; the emotional and physical impact of the pandemic on staff working with people with dementia and their families; and the impact of changes made (e.g. increased PPE, remote working) on the ability to deliver post-diagnostic support. However, there were also some unintended positive outcomes of the changes. These included the ability to include family members living at a distance in remote consultations, allowing for more robust history-taking, as well as the uptake of technology to facilitate cross-sector and multidisciplinary working between professionals.
Delivering post-diagnostic dementia support during COVID-19 was challenging and forced dementia services to make adaptations. Participants expected that some of these changes would be incorporated into post-pandemic work, for example increased use of technology for multidisciplinary team meetings or blended approaches to patient-facing services involving both virtual and face to face work as appropriate. However, most participants agreed that it was not appropriate nor desirable to provide fully remote post-diagnostic support on a full time basis.
Every year in Australia over a thousand children who are born with congenital heart disease require surgical intervention. Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) can be an unavoidable and potentially devastating complication of surgery for congenital heart disease. Structured, multidisciplinary care pathways help to guide clinical care and reduce mortality and morbidity. An implementation study was conducted to embed a novel, multidisciplinary management pathway into practice using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). The goal of the pathway was to prepare children with postoperative vocal cord dysfunction to safely commence and transition to oral feeding. Education sessions to support pathway rollout were completed with clinical stakeholders. Other implementation strategies used included adaptation of the pre-procedural pathway to obtain consent, improving the process of identifying patients on the VCD pathway, and nominating a small team who were responsible for the ongoing monitoring of patients following recruitment. Implementation success was evaluated according to compliance with pathway defined management. Our study found that while there were several barriers to pathway adoption, implementation of the pathway was feasible despite pathway adaptations that were required in response to COVID-19.
We surveyed pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) site leaders within the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship collaborative regarding discharge stewardship practices. Among 67 sites, 13 (19%) reported ASP review of discharge antimicrobial prescriptions. These findings highlight discharge stewardship as a potential opportunity for improvement during the hospital-to-home transition.
The aim of this study is to systematically investigate the demographic and disease predictors of cognitive and behavioural phenotype in the largest cohort of children with NF1 published to date. Based on previously published research, we examine the potential role of demographic predictors such as age, sex, SES, parental NF1 status as well as the neurological complications such as epilepsy and brain tumours in NF1 associated cognitive/ behavioural impairments.
In this cross-sectional study design, participant data were drawn from two large databases which included (i) A clinical database of all patients with NF1 seen in a clinical psychological service from 2010 to 2019 and (ii) A research dataset from two previously published studies (2,8). The complex National NF1 service based within Manchester regional genetic services is set up for individuals with complex NF1 (https://www.mangen.co.uk/healthcare-professionals/clinical-genomic-services/nf1/) in the North of the UK. Children were referred to the psychological services by NF1 clinicians if psychological assessment was warranted based on parental reports. In order to reduce clinic referral bias, the clinical sample was supplemented by including participants that were seen solely for the purposes of research studies within our centre.
Relative to population norms, 90% of the NF1 sample demonstrated significantly lower scores in at least one cognitive or behavioral domain. Family history of NF1 and lower SES were independently associated with poorer cognitive, behavioral and academic outcomes. Neurological problems such as epilepsy and hydrocephalus were associated with lower IQ and academic skills.
Cognitive and behavioural phenotypes commonly emerge via a complex interplay between genes and environmental factors, and this is true also of a monogenic condition such as NF1. Early interventions and remedial education may be targeted to risk groups such those with familial NF1, families with lower SES and those with associated neurological comorbidities.
A widely accepted assumption in both the syntactic and semantic literature is that copulas lack semantic content. A consequent question is how to explain the existence in certain languages of two copular verbs that give rise to different interpretations. Such is the case in numerous languages of the Dene family (formerly known as Athapaskan). We explain this situation with the hypothesis that the copulas realize an underlying three-copula system differing in argument structure. Differences between the interpretations of copular clauses in these languages originate in the compositional semantics of these structures, not in any lexical semantic differences.
This hypothesis successfully predicts the distributional differences between the surface forms of the Dene copulas, such as their compatibility with adjuncts of time and intentionality, interactions with accusative case, and semantic lifetime effects.
We evaluated adverse drug events (ADEs) by chart review in a random national sample of 428 veterans with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who received tocilizumab (n = 173 of 428). ADEs (median time, 5 days) occurred in 51 of 173 (29%) and included hepatoxicity (n = 29) and infection (n = 13). Concomitant medication discontinuation occurred in 22% of ADE patients; mortality was 39%.
The human remains recovered from the famous Bjerringhøj Viking Age burial in Denmark have been missing for more than 100 years. Recently, an assemblage of bones resembling those recorded at Bjerringhøj—some with adherent textiles—were discovered in a misplaced box in the National Museum of Denmark. Here, the authors use new skeletal and comparative textile analyses, along with radiocarbon dating, to confirm that the bones are indeed those from the Bjerringhøj burial. This rediscovery offers new data for interpreting Viking Age clothing, including the presence of long trousers, and emphasises the importance of reinvestigating old archaeological collections housed within museums and archives.
Prior studies of universal masking have not measured face-mask compliance. We performed a quality improvement study to monitor and improve face-mask compliance among healthcare personnel (HCP) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Tertiary-care center in West Haven, Connecticut.
HCP including physicians, nurses, and ancillary staff.
Face-mask compliance was measured through direct observations during a 4-week baseline period after universal masking was mandated. Frontline and management HCP completed semistructured interviews from which a multimodal intervention was developed. Direct observations were repeated during a 14-week period following implementation of the multimodal intervention. Differences between units were evaluated with χ2 testing using the Bonferroni correction. Face-mask compliance between baseline and intervention periods was compared using time-series regression.
Among 1,561 observations during the baseline period, median weekly face-mask compliance was 82.2% (range, 80.8%–84.4%). Semistructured interviews were performed with 16 HCP. Qualitative analysis informed the development of a multimodal intervention consisting of audit and passive feedback, active discussion, and increased communication from leadership. Among 2,651 observations during the intervention period, median weekly face-mask compliance was 92.6% (range, 84.6%–97.9%). There was no difference in weekly face-mask compliance between COVID-19 and non–COVID-19 units. The multimodal intervention was associated with an increase in face-mask compliance (β = 0.023; P = .002).
Face-mask compliance remained suboptimal among HCP despite a facility-wide mandate for universal masking. A multimodal intervention consisting of audit and passive feedback, active discussion, and increased communication from leadership was effective in increasing face-mask compliance among HCP.
Responding to recent advances in knowledge about the first arrival of woollen sheep in Europe and linked investigations of textile remains on the Continent, this paper argues that our insight into the role of wool in the English Bronze Age needs rethinking. We argue that the relevant questions are: when did the procurement of and working with wool become a routine aspect of settlement life, and did the change from plant fibres to wool affect communities differently? The paper outlines some of the core research questions we need to consider and points to the necessity of triangulating between the evidence provided by textiles, faunal remains, and textile working tools to reach more comprehensive insights. The paper ends by indicating a further research question – namely whether the apparent differences in the ‘wool economy’ in different parts of Bronze Age Europe may suggest differences in ‘body politics’.
The extent to which obsessive–compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) are impulsive, compulsive, or both requires further investigation. We investigated the existence of different clusters in an online nonclinical sample and in which groups DSM-5 OCRDs and other related psychopathological symptoms are best placed.
Seven hundred and seventy-four adult participants completed online questionnaires including the Cambridge–Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), and a series of DSM-5 OCRDs symptom severity and other psychopathological measures. We used K-means cluster analysis using CHI-T and BIS responses to test three and four factor solutions. Next, we investigated whether different OCRDs symptoms predicted cluster membership using a multinomial regression model.
The best solution identified one “healthy” and three “clinical” clusters (ie, one predominantly “compulsive” group, one predominantly “impulsive” group, and one “mixed”—“compulsive and impulsive group”). A multinomial regression model found obsessive–compulsive, body dysmorphic, and schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” and the “compulsive” clusters, and hoarding and emotional symptoms to be related, on a trend level, to the “impulsive” cluster. Additional analysis showed cognitive-perceptual schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” but not the “compulsive” group.
Our findings suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder; body dysmorphic disorder and schizotypal symptoms can be mapped across the “compulsive” and “mixed” clusters of the compulsive–impulsive spectrum. Although there was a trend toward hoarding being associated with the “impulsive” group, trichotillomania, and skin picking disorder symptoms did not clearly fit to the demarcated clusters.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of falls and fractures. Assuming this association is causal, we aimed to identify the number and proportion of hospitalisations for falls and hip fractures attributable to vitamin D deficiency (25 hydroxy D (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/l) in Australians aged ≥65 years. We used 25(OH)D data from the 2011/12 Australian Health Survey and relative risks from published meta-analyses to calculate population-attributable fractions for falls and hip fracture. We applied these to data published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare to calculate the number of events each year attributable to vitamin D deficiency. In men and women combined, 8·3 % of hospitalisations for falls (7991 events) and almost 8 % of hospitalisations for hip fractures (1315 events) were attributable to vitamin D deficiency. These findings suggest that, even in a sunny country such as Australia, vitamin D deficiency contributes to a considerable number of hospitalisations as a consequence of falls and for treatment of hip fracture in older Australians; in countries where the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher, the impact will be even greater. It is important to mitigate vitamin D deficiency, but whether this should occur through supplementation or increased sun exposure needs consideration of the benefits, harms, practicalities and costs of both approaches.
Obesity is a risk factor for increased difficulty in most modalities of airway management. It decreases ease and effectiveness of face mask ventilation, supraglottic airway device use and front of neck airway techniques and probably makes laryngoscopy more difficult. When difficulty occurs, airway rescue techniques are more likely to fail in the obese patient. Obesity also increases the risk of aspiration and difficulty in lung ventilation, both of which may necessitate changes in anaesthetic technique. Most importantly, obesity reduces the time available for airway management before hypoxia supervenes. To worsen matters, obesity reduces the efficacy of pre-oxygenation and safe apnoea time is less prolonged with apnoeic oxygenation techniques than in the non-obese population. To compound these factors obesity is associated with obesity-specific (e.g. obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome) and non-specific co-morbidities (diabetes, asthma, hypertension). With increasing numbers of obese patients and increasing degrees of obesity in the surgical population it is essential that all anaesthetists are familiar with the potential complications of airway management in the obese and the techniques that may mitigate or manage risk.
Research suggests that the metacognitive model is applicable to clinical child populations. However, few measures related to the model are available for younger age groups. A key concept of the model is the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), which encompasses the individual’s worry and rumination, maladaptive coping strategies, and metacognitive beliefs. While the CAS has been successfully measured in adults, this has not yet been attempted in children.
The aim of this study was to adapt a measure of the CAS for use with children and investigate the measure’s associations with anxiety, worry, depression and metacognitions.
Our study included 127 children with anxiety disorders aged 7–13 years. The adult measure of CAS was adapted for use with children and administered at pre- and post-treatment. We examined the correlations between variables and the ability of the CAS measure to explain variance in anxious symptomatology, as well as the measure’s sensitivity to treatment change.
The adapted measure, CAS-1C, displayed strong associations with overall anxiety, depression, worry and metacognitions. The CAS-1C explained an additional small amount of variance in anxiety and worry symptoms after accounting for metacognitions, which may be due to the measure also assessing thinking styles and coping strategies. Furthermore, the measure displayed sensitivity to treatment change.
The child measure of the CAS is a brief tool for collecting information on metacognitive beliefs and strategies that maintain psychopathology according to the metacognitive model, and it can be used to monitor treatment changes in these components.
Hyperprolific sows rear more piglets than they have teats, and to accommodate this, milk replacers are often offered as a supplement. Milk replacers are based on bovine milk, yet components of vegetable origin are often added. This may reduce growth, but could also accelerate maturational changes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding piglets a milk replacer with gradually increasing levels of wheat flour on growth, gut enzyme activity and immune function compared with a diet based entirely on bovine milk. The hypothesis tested was that adding a starch component (wheat flour) induces maturation of the mucosa as measured by higher digestive activity and improved integrity and immunity of the small intestines (SI). To test this hypothesis, piglets were removed from the sow at day 3 and fed either a pure milk replacer diet (MILK) or from day 11 a milk replacer diet with increasing levels of wheat (WHEAT). The WHEAT piglets had an increased enzyme activity of maltase and sucrase in the proximal part of the SI compared with the MILK group. There were no differences in gut morphology, histopathology and gene expression between the groups. In conclusion, the pigs given a milk replacer with added wheat displayed immunological and gut mucosal enzyme maturational changes, indicatory of adaptation towards a vegetable-based diet. This was not associated with any clinical complications, and future studies are needed to show whether this could improve responses in the subsequent weaning process.