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A detailed account of the history and current developments in the field of investigative decision making. This covers broad decision making theory, namely: traditional decision theory, heuristic and biases, fast and frugal heuristics and naturalistic decision making. This is applied to the current challenges faced by the police with research examples used to illustrate their relevance. The phenomenon of indecision is also discussed in the context of investigations, with consideration to why this occurs as well as considering the devasting and far reaching consequences this can have to an investigation.
Catatonia is a psychomotor dysregulation syndrome of diverse aetiology, increasingly recognised as a prominent feature of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis (NMDARE) in adults. No study to date has systematically assessed the prevalence and symptomatology of catatonia in children with NMDARE. We analysed 57 paediatric patients with NMDARE from the literature using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Catatonia was common (occurring in 86% of patients), manifesting as complex clusters of positive and negative features within individual patients. It was both underrecognised and undertreated. Immunotherapy was the only effective intervention, highlighting the importance of prompt recognition and treatment of the underlying cause of catatonia.
Investigative decision making sits largely within the academic disciplines of cognitive and social psychology though it is also allied to criminology and sociology. It is an eclectic field of study based on scientific, empirical research. Investigative decision making draws on a lengthy body of research of general decision theory stretching back centuries. Some features of human decision making hold across any context, so traditional decision-making theory (TDT) findings are applicable to investigative decision making. As with other theories and models associated with generic decision making, game theory has a contribution to make to investigative decision making. Unlike TDT, naturalistic decision-making approaches take more account of the context in which decision makers operate. In TDT studies, participants in a lab study may be asked to decide which choices are more (or less) attractive. Investigative decision making has evolved from and is still influenced by early decision theory.